Comm 288 Lecture Study Guide Exam 2

Lecture 1 The Tough Guise 1

What did Jackson Katz say about school shootings to Sut that upset him?
This is not kids killing kids, this is boys killing boys, and boys killing girls- we will be condemned to deal with this violence, knew this is a teachable moment in culture

What do you have to do to not make gender the main thing?
You literally have to become blind to it

What is the main thing that we don’t talk about in culture?
in general men are absent, we don’t talk about men as problem

What kind of phenomenon is violence?
largely male

What kind of perspective does violence surround?
not an anti-male perspective, vast majority of men are not violence

Who are the main victims of violence?
other men

Why does Katz work with sports teams?
because of privilege sports men have on campus

What is one of the first things Katz says we have to do if we want to change culture?
make the culture visible

What movie metaphor did Katz want to use in Tough Guise to represent the Tough Guise?
Wizard of Oz clip when curtain is pulled back behind image of tough wizard (tough guise), is really a vulnerable old man that all men and people have

What is the tough guise?
its a front, a mask, a disguise that boys and men take on as they perform masculinity: gender is a performance, its a role we take on

What is masculinity, in our culture, linked with
linked with power and control and threat

While a gun is a great equalizer, why don’t women use them as men do?
itsbecause its not just an equalizer, its an equalizer around images of gender

What is masculinity?
its a performance

What is wrong with the phrase boys will be boys?
masculinity is the opposite of the phrase, if boys were innately just being boys, this is the opposite of performance

What kind of performance is the tough guise?
its a homosocial performance for other men

What are the two effects of video games?
1. desensitization to violence
2. less empathy for victims

What is the major effect of video games?
its what they don’t do, they convince people you shouldn’t do anything, even when you see people doing something bad- thats their real impact, its what they get us not to do and what they get us not to be outraged by

What kind of behavior is violence?
violence is not a learned behavior, its a taught behavior

Lecture 2 The Tough Guise 2

What is one of the most watched educational films?
the tough guise

What is the taught lesson?
someone is doing the teaching, someone is doing socialization- all societies are a result of people taking action

What book did Michael Kimmel write?
Guyland-a book about world starting in college and so on into late 20’s for men

What do all male authority figures teach as a mainstream idea?
physical toughness and emotional invulnerability are the definitions of a real man

What is real masculinity?
rela masculinity is connected to the ability to inflict real violence or threat of real violence

What was wrong with the umass football promotional video?
players on team were instructed to fight each other and now alumni are paying attention and complaining about what coaches were doing to football team- was supposed to be team building exercise and shows players fighting

How do men bond?
men bond though violence

This idea of men bonding through violence is where in our culture?
mainstream idea, in the center of culture, not on the margins of culture

What does Sut think is the worst intellectual idea?
using violence to bond men- aka the football coach at UMass

What is one important way video games are different from movies are other media?
how they aren’t just about watching, they are abut doing, about engagement and reacting to something, its your body responding to the game- not an experience just through your head but also through your body and this is a very powerful form of influence

What is a great way of influencing someone?

What does masculinity as a homosocial performance look like?
men performing for other men

Who is one of the great sociologist of contemporary times?
Sasha Baren Cohen- takes on role of Borat, takes on guise and goes into places and gets people to actually act they would normally

What is a minority behavior of males?

How can shame be dealt with?
healthy reaction to shame is to know you are not going to be ashamed again, you are now going to be in world in different way

How do you deal with the shame?
its done, you can’t change the past, but now you can react in the future in a different way

What is another issue with gender in video games?
when you start looking at gender in shooter video games, there is almost no representation of women within that, it is a very male defined world in terms of character

What happened to Anita Sarkese when she wanted to analyze and look at representation of women in video games?
got assaulted

Where is the code strongest?
in the middle/center of culture and society- mainstream

What happened in Steubenville, Ohio in the summer?
two high school football players sexually assaulted an unconscious 16 year old girl- sent out pictures to send their friends- not merely about what they did to girl, but if nobody sees what they did its not a performance

what makes the Steubenville case a performance?
to make it a performance people have to see what you did, so they take pictures and sent them to friends

Why did Steubenville become an issue?
only became an issue because of pressure from social movement, pressure from outside that forced community do deal with the problem

Lecture 3 The Tough Guise 3

Who is Noam Chomsky?
one of the most influential intellectuals of the 20th and 21st century – he revolutionized the study of linguistics, but he really is known by most people through his political writings

Who is the most quoted living author?
Noam Chomsky

Who is Sasha Cohens break out character and persona?
Ali G- persona of white suburban kid who wants to be black

What is the ultimate homosocial performance?
gang rape=performace is for other guys, not for guys doing it

What is the normal response to things like gang rape?
victim blaming and something to do with women

What kind of issue is rape versus what kind of issue it usually becomes?
rape is a mens issue, but usually becomes a women’s issue

What is violence often more about?
less about stepping out of line and more about boys towing the line about what it means to masculine and think about violence not in deviant form

While violence is not a majority of males activity, what percent of violence is connected to men?

What is violence as a behavior?
it is partly a learned behavior – people who commit violence often have experienced violence

What are the two ways to get over shame?
you can either lash out and act violent or you can move on and say you won’t let something like this happen again

How do you treat the problem of violence?
first you must diagnos the problem properly

What do guns have to do with?

What is the only answer to a bad guy with a gun according to the Newton, CT-NRA lesson?
answer of NRA is arm everyone, only answer to a bad guy with a gun is a good guy with a gun- said there should have been armed guards at the school

How do we understand guns in America?
look at the history

Lecture 4 The Tough Guise

What is the most violent time for women in a domestic abusive relationship?
wen she leaves- when she breaks the control- emotional

what is realest control?
killing the woman

What is the concept of overdetermination?
to determine means to influence- when many things determine a situation, the meaning of determine becomes more complex

What should analysis identify?
analysis should identify what those things are AND how they INTERACT together to determine a situation

What is a guarantee of failure when looking at activism?
to be an activist without understanding

What is the argument of testosterone?
testosterone makes men

The books “A Natural History of Rape” and “The War Against boys” argue what?
that the link entwine masculinity and violence is BIOLOGICL and not social

The book The War on Boys argues what?
it is FEMINISM that is to blame for male violence- the culprit is feminism

What is rape and sexual crime apparently a result of?
evolutionary biology where males are looking to guarantee reproduction and procreation – rape is apparently in the genes

According to culture why is there male violence?
biology, feminism, and slutty women

What are the implications of the conservative theory around violence?
– if men are like wild animals then we should deal with them the way we do with animals
-kill them
-lock them up
-drug them
-presented as argument that is pro men and against feminism even though i could think of a more anti male theory
-also lets men off hook having to think in moral and ethical terms because they are men, the more you think the less you are a man

Is the theory about male violence true?
1. if its os natural, why are so many men NOT VIOLENT- in fact the vast majority aren’t
2. if it is so natural why is there such cultural variation in the levels of mens violence in different societies
3. if its so natural why is mens behavior so policed? (Kimmel answer-“if it were biological, it would be as natural as breathing or blinking. IN truth the guy code fits as comfortably as a straight jacket”
4. (way of dealing) if its so natural- why do conceptions of masculinity change so much over time

When did the competition for resources start?
10,000 years ago which is nothing

What does Sut say we are much more like?
bonobo monkeys than chimps

What always act together?
culture and biology

Lecture 5 The Tough Guise 5

Analysis of Question 4- changing conception of masculinity over time?
-if you look at levels of violence its risen, body mass of men risen, while females got smaller

Questions about approach to images of cultural studies?
1. What is the IMPETUS for the production of these images- why are they changing?
2. Why do these amigos become POPULAR?
3. What EFFECT do these images have on identity?

Where are the fears and anxieties of white men expressed?
Fox News -they will pound things into head time after time- like peering into the subconscious of a paranoid delusional

What kind of panic is there with masculinity?
panic around masculinity in circle of white conservative ideology

What is boy scouts an example of?
it emerged out of gender issues and it still is embroiled in it- traditional masculinity- won’t let gays in

While we have always had gender anxiety in history, what do we also now have?
racial anxiety

How do you deal with anxiety around masculinity?
back to old-fashioned virtues of masculinity, back to old fashioned notions of physicality

Who are the two most iconic figures when it comes to race?
Martin Luther King and Malcom X

How do people often respond if they believe their world is under attack by gays and change?
Richard Slotkin says the response is regenerative violence- you regenerate violence and reassert yourself in world

How many guns are in the US?
300 million guns owned in U.S. 50% of all civilians owned guns are in U.S.

What percent of guns are owned by the population?
?60% of guns are owned by 20% of the population -ownership is really concentrated

Who are the major owners of these guns?
major owners of these guns are older white men in rural areas

What is the main reason for owning guns?
main reason for owning guns has shifted from hunting and recreation to protection and self-defense

Lecture 6 Masculinity and Race 1

What is identity?
it is an overdetermined phenomenon

What does overdetermined mean?
it is never just one thing

If you want to understand gender what else do you have to understand?
race- gender is always connected to race

How did we get country back?
get country back through regenerative violence, through more muscular masculinity which is response to feeling powerless-through adoption of the tough guise

Where does masculinity and performance of male gender come from?
come from how black male bodies have come to be epitome of toughness in culture

What does the dominant image of a tough and rugged masculinity very quickly become linked with?
image of BLACK MALE body

Where did black men learn this idea of toughness?
from what culture tells them toughness is- model of toughness was tough, white, Italian gangsters

Where are origins of modern masculine performance from
past- history

Where does the cool pose come from?
poor men and men of color

What would happen if women tried to talk to men in schools on the education of equality with genders?
they would shut off initially if they see a woman standing before them

what does hip-hop develop as?
political response and urban neglect in south bronx and deals with broader social issues

Lecture 7 Masculinity and Race 2

What does hip-hop develop as a response to?
a particular set of economic and social conditions-urban neglect

What has hip-hop transformed into?
morphed and transformed into a particular view of black masculinity

Who was involved with the start of hip-hop?
group called Public Enemy- Chuck D and Flavor Flav- the were highly political group

What is the equation of masulininty with violence?
a deeply American tradition

What has there been a movement with hip-hop with?
independent labels with hip-hop to not independent

If masculinity in hip-hop is a performance who is directing it?
-executives at record companies
-not just about blackness

Why does hip-hop make millions of dollars for record companies?
is not because black audiences are buying hip-hop, its because white audiences are buying hip-hop

What is representations and consumption about?
representations are about blackness, but consumption is about whiteness

Why has American popular culture has always had a black dimension at its center?
partly because this is exciting, this is where energy is

What does black masculinity inflict?
both scared and attracted by image of black masculinity

What is there a dialect of?

What is this dialect of FEAR and ADORATION?
on one hand america seems to love black culture, black starts and black seems to be at center of consumption of a lot of white americans . at the same time there is almost 0 connection with the real black community

What does Michele Alexander argue in “The New Jim Crow: Mass Incarceration in the Age of Colorblindness”?
what she argues is that slavery and these structures of slavery and effects of slavery need went away, that even though slavery was abolished

What does mass incarceration or the prison system take over?
slavery- you didn’t have rights as a slave, you loose a lot of rights in prison as well

Who has the prison system recently been imprisoning?
incarcerate many black-men- inslave black-men

What is happening right now in prisons?
right now there are more black men in prison than there were slaves in 1950

What is key about our current prison system?
-increased from 200,000 in late 1960s to over 2 million today
-10 fold increase of people in prison
-in 1964 66% of prisoners were white and 33% were people of color
– by 1990s numbers are flipped- 66% are people of color & 33% of

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