Combo with Chapter 34, 35, 37, 38 and 8 others

what is ecology?
the study of the interactions of organisms with their environments.

what is an ecosystem? what is it made of?
a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment, includes both biotic and abiotic components of the environment.

what is the biosphere? where does it extend?
an extension from the atmosphere several kilometers above from the earths to the depths of the ocean, all of the earth that is inhabited by life.

what factors effect the biosphere?
– Abiotic factors,
– Biotic factors.
– Anthropogenic factors

what factors affect climate? seasons?
Determine adjustment, so the spreading, also limiting of the population, depending on climatic conditions (temperature, humidity, precipitation, winds blow, the intensity of sunlight, etc.)

what climate do we live in?
grasslands

what are the two main categories of biomes and what factors affect each category?
aquatic and terrestrial biomes; distance from equator, plants, animals, elevation.

what are the aquatic biomes? (saline and fresh)
Freshwater: Ponds and lakes, streams and river, and wetlands.
Marine: Oceans, coral reefs, and estuaries.

what is the water cycle?
the circulation of the earth’s water, in which water evaporates from the sea into the atmosphere, where it condenses and falls as rain or snow, returning to the sea by rivers or returning to the atmosphere by evapotranspiration

how does human activity affect the water cycle?
The earth’s water supply stays the same but humans can alter the cycle. As population increases, and living standards rise this can increase the demand for water. Humans impact the water cycle by polluting the water in rivers, streams, reservoirs etc.

what is population ecology? what’s a population?
changes in population size and the factors that regulate populations over time; a group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area.

recognize the three dispersal patterns? which one may not be “real”?
clumped dispersal, uniform dispersal, and random dispersal.

what are the three survivorship curves and examples?
Type I – surivorship; produce offspring but give them good care, increasing the likelihood that they will survive to maturity.
Type II – with survivorship constant over the life span are more more vulnerable at one stage of the life cycle that another.
Type III – low survivorship for the very young. followed by a period when survivorship is high for those few individuals who live to a certain age.

what are the two types of growth curves?
exponential growth and logistic growth

what is “k” and what factors limit a population?
“k” stands for carrying capacity; food, breeding territories, nesting sites, and shelters.

what are life histories? what sorts of things are studied in a life history?
are traits that affect an organism’s schedule of reproduction and death; age of first reproduction, the frequency of reproduction, the number of offspring, and the amount of parental care given.

what are r-selected vs k-selected life histories? in what sort of environment would you expect to find each? what are examples of each?
r-selected: occurs in environments where resources are abundant permitting exponential growth; unpredictable disturbances such as fires, floods, hurricanes, droughts, and cold weather.
k-selected: occurs in environments where the population size in near carrying capacity; typically are found in stable climates.

what is a community?
is an assemblage of all the populations of organisms living close enough together for potential interaction.

what are the 4-types of interspecific interactions of community?
Interspecific competition, Mutualism, Predation, and Herbivory;

what is niche? what happens when two different species try to occupy the same niche in a community?
defined as a sum of its use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment; populations either stabilize at lower numbers or only one species takes over and cannot coexist together.

understand “predation” in a broader sense than just killing an animal for food. example?
has negative affects on reproduction rates but benefit from camouflage, mechanical defense, chemical defenses, and learn to associate color pat

what is a keystone species? examples?
a species whose impact on its community is much larger than its community is much larger than its biomass or abundance indicate. ex. bison, starfish, sea urchins.

how does energy flow help predation?
gets transferred from plant, to animal, and so on.

what is primary production? biomass?
the amount of solar energy converted to chemical energy; is biological material derived from living, or recently living organisms.

how much energy on the average goes from one trophic level to the next?
80%-95% of the energy at one trophic level never transfers to the next.

what are the three levels of biodiversity?
human alteration of habitats pose the single greatest threat to biodiversity. habitat loss as a cause of the biodiversity crisis are invasive species which disrupt communities by competing with, preying on, and parasitizing native species. threat to biodiversity is overexploitation of wildlife by harvesting at rates that exceed the ability of populations to rebound.

what are the 5 threats of biodiversity? which one is the leading cause of extirpation? which is the leading cause of extinction?
1. Habitat Degradation and Loss
2. Non-Native Invasive Species
3. Pollution
4. Overuse of Resources
5. Global Environmental Change (1 for extinction)

what are some consequences of global warming?
ocean temps rising, warming is greater over land that on sea, arctic sea ice is shrinking, permafrost that characterize the tundra biome is melting. Warmer temperatures are beginning earlier each year and cold day and nights have become less frequent. deadly heat weaves are increasing in frequency and duration.

what are three gases causes of the greenhouse affect?
CO2, water vapor, and methane

which cause of the greenhouse affect is stronger?
methane

what is meant by phenotypic plasticity?
the ability to change phenotype in response to local environment

what is biodiversity hotspots? what is an endemic species?
realively small areas have a large number of endangered and threatened species and an exceptional concentration of endemic species; those that are found nowhere else.

universal dispersal
interactions between the individuals of a population

clumped dispersal
individuals are grouped in patches, the most common in nature.

random dispersal
individuals in a population are spaced in an unpredictable way without a pattern. ex. dandelions that grow from windblown seeds might be randomly dispersed.

exponential growth
gives an idealized picture of unregulated population growth

logistic growth
idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors as the population size increased.

Components of Populations – how do we measure population structure and status?
distribution, abundance, population dynamics, density, independence

What factors limit populations
Predation, competition, disease, nutrients, parasites

Density dependent
a population limiting factor whose intensity is linked to population density

Density independent
a population limiting factor whose intensity is unrelated to a population’s density

Survivorship curve
a plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age; one way to represent age-specific mortality

Exponential growth
occurs when the individuals in a population reproduce at a constant rate

Geometric growth
Population growth in which generations do not overlap and in which successive generations differ in size by a constant ratio.

Additive growth
Population growth in which a constant number of individuals is added to the population during successive time intervals

Logistic growth
growth pattern in which a population’s growth rate slows or stops following a period of exponential growth

sustained yield
The rate at which a resource may be used without reducing its long-term availability or limiting its ability to renew itself.

carrying capacity
In a population, the number of individuals that an environment can sustain

How do we identify the different environments on Earth?
usually classified by precipitation and temperature

What’s the role fire, or plant succession on biome stability and structure
Some plants or trees rely on fire to reproduce. Fire helps clear out an area of old growth which allows more new growth

Ecology
The experimental analysis of the distribution and abundance of organisms

Biome
On a biological scale: similar climate, topography and organisms

Biosphere
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems

Wetland
-covered by water at least part of the year
-high species diversity
-high productivity
-high “ecosystem services”

Desert
-Sporadic precipitation
– <7cm annual rainfall -some microsites on south facing slopes -organisms adapted to avoid water loss

Tropical
characterized by high levels of precipitation and warm temperature all year around

Savanna
grasses, scattered trees

Chaparral
dominated by spiny evergreen shrubs adapted to periodic drought and fires. Found where cold ocean currents circulate offshore creating mild,rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers

Temperate
not very hot, and not very cold…no extremes

Tundra
-wind and ice
– short growing season
– soils alternately frozen or waterlogged
– grasses, sedges, mosses and lichens

Oceanic biome
-nutrient poor and oxygen rich water, phytoplankton growth

Community
An assemblage of all the organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular area.

Interspecific Interactions
Relationships between individuals of different species in a community

Interspecific Competition
Competition between individuals or populations of two or more species requiring a limited resource.

Mutualism
An interspecific relationship in which bother partners benefit

Predation
An interaction between species in which one species, the predator, eats the other, the prey

Herbivory
Consumption of plant parts or algae by an animal

Ecological Niche
The role of a species in its community; the sum total of a species’ use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its environment

Coevolution
Evolutionary change in which adaptions in one species act as a selective force on a second species, inducing adaptations that in turn act as a selective force on the first species; mutual influence on the evolution of two different interacting species

Food Chain
A sequence of food transfers from producers through one to four levels of consumers in an ecosystem

Producers
An organism that makes organic food molecules from CO2, H2O, and other inorganic raw materials: a plant, alga, or autotrophic prokaryote

Primary Consumers
In the trophic structure of an ecosystem, an organism that eats plants or algae

Secondary Consumers
An organism that eats primary consumers

Tertiary Consumers
An organism that eats secondary consumers

Quaternary Consumers
An organism that eats tertiary consumers

Detritus
Dead organic matter

Scavengers
An animal that feeds on the carcasses of dead animals

Detritivore
An organism that consumes organic wastes and dead organism

Decomposers
Prokaryotes and fungi that secrete enzymes that digest nutrients from organic material and convert them to inorganic forms

Decomposition
The breakdown of organic materials into inorganic ones

Species Diversity
The variety of species that make up a community. Species diversity includes both species richness (the total number of different species) and the relative abundance of the different species in the community

Keystone Species
A species that is not usually abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on community structure by the nature of its ecological role, or niche

Disturbance
In ecology, a force that changes a biological community and usually removes organism from it

Ecological Succession
The process of biological community change resulting from disturbance; transition in the species, composition of a biological community, often following a flood, fire, or volcanic eruption

Primary Succession
A type of ecological succession in which a biological community arises in an area without soil

Secondary Succession
A type of ecological succession that occurs where a disturbance has destroyed an existing biological community but left the soil intact.

Biological Control
The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population

Ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment

Chemical Cycling
The use and reuse of a chemical element, such as carbon, within an ecosystem

Primary Production
The amount of soalr energy converted to chimeical energy (in organic compounds) by autotrophs in an ecosystem during a given period

Biogeochemical Cycle
Any of the various chemical circuits that involve both biotic and abiotic components of an ecosystem

Abiotic Reservoirs
The part of an ecosystem where a chemical, such as carbon or nitrogen, accumulates or is stockpiled outside of living organisms

Abiotic factor
a nonliving component of an ecosystem, such as air, water, or temperature

Aphotic zone
the region of an aquatic ecosystem beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate enough for photosynthesis to take place

Biotic factor
a living component of a biological community; an organism, or a factor pertaining to one or more organisms

Biosphere
the entire portion of earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet’s ecosystems

Continental shelf
the submerged part of a continent

Biome
a major type of ecological association that occupies a broad geographic region of land or water and is characterized by organisms adapted to the particular environment

Community
an assemblage f all the organisms living together and potentially interacting in a particular area

Doldrums
an area of calm or very light winds near the equator, caused by rising warm water

Ecosystem
all the organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment

Ecology
scientific study or how organisms interact with their environment

Desert
a biome characterized by organisms adapted to sparse rainfall (less than 30 cm per year) and rapid evaporation

Chaparral
a biome dominated by spiny evergreen shrubs adapted to periodic drought and fires; found where cold ocean currents circulate offshore, creating mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers

Population
a group of individuals belonging to one species and living the same geographic area

Prevailing winds
winds that result from the combined effects of earth’s rotation and the rising and falling of air masses

Pelagic realm
the region of an ocean occupied by seawater

Photic zone
the region of an aquatic ecosystem into which light penetrates and where photosynthesis occurs

Phytoplankton
algae and photosynthetic bacteria that drift passively in aquatic environments

Intertidal zone
a shallow zone where the waters of the estuary or ocean meet land

Estuary
the area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean

Temperate zones
latitudes between the tropics and the Arctic Circle in the north and the Antarctic Circle in the south; regions with milder climates than the tropics or Polar Regions

Sectors of Ecology
population, community, ecosystems, conservation

mark/recapture
way to measure population density

logistic growth model
description of idealized population growth that is slowed by limiting factors as the population size increases

logistic growth equation
G = rN (K-N)/K

Evolutionary cause of behavior is called the
ultimate cause

When a nipple is placed in a newborn baby’s mouth, the infant will immediately begin to suckle. This is an example of
innate behavior

When nest building, a female Fisher’s lovebird cuts long strips of vegetation and carries them to the nest site one at a time in her beak. The peach-faced lovebird cuts short strips and carries them to the nest tucked under back feathers. Hybrid offspring cut intermediate-sized strips and attempt to tuck them under back feathers before carrying them in their beak. What does this demonstrate about behavior?
There is a genetic basis to behavior

When you successfully study with the stereo in the background, you are demonstrating
habituation

A male turkey that imprinted onto a human at hatching is transferred as a subadult to a flock of “normal” turkeys. When this turkey reaches sexual maturity, he will probably try to court
humans

A grayling butterfly will normally fly toward the sun. This is an example of
taxis

A blue jay hides hundreds of nuts throughout the fall and finds them throughout the winter and spring. The blue jay is most likely finding the stored food by using
Cognitive map

The most extensive study of internal maps have involved animals that
migrate

Squirrels on a bird feeder seem to be able to figure out how to steal seeds no matter what people do. Yesterday, Jeremy hung out a new bird feeder design, and sure enough, by the end of the day the squirrels found a way to get to the seeds. The squirrels most likely figured out how to get the seeds through
trial-and-error learning

The baby bobcats watched as their mother stalked a rabbit and pounced, catching dinner that was shared by all. The next day, two of the young bobcats were seen stalking a field mouse, which quickly escaped from the inexperienced hunters. The young bobcats were learning how to hunt by the process of
social learning

An insectivorous bird has the choice of eating (1) meadow beetles, which are abundant and large but expose the bird to hawk predation; (2) under-a-rock beetles, which are large and fatty but hard to obtain; and (3) under-a-leaf beetles, which are easy to obtain but small. The bird has nestlings to feed. As an optimal forager, it will
eat all three kinds of beetles, balancing the energy spent obtaining each against the energy gained and the risks incurred.

The need for intense parental care of offspring favors mating systems that are
monogamous

Territories are typically used for
A. feeding
B. mating
C. rearing young
D. All of the above
D. All of the above

Organisms that are nocturnal are more likely to communicate using
smell and sound

An ecologist hypothesizes that predation by a particular owl species is the major factor controlling the population of a particular rabbit species. A good preliminary step in testing this hypothesis would be to determine
whether the owls eat the rabbit

An owl and a hawk both eat mice. Which of these terms describes the relationship between a hawk and an owl?
competition

Within an ecosystem, a tree is a
producer

proximate questions
concern immediate reasons for a behavior
How a behavior develops during an animal’s life span

stimuli
environmental cues that cause a response

behaviors
adaptations that have been shaped by natural selection

Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen
Frisch: bees
Lorenz: founder of behavior biology, emphasized importance of studying behavior of various anials in response to different stimuli
Tinbergen: experimental studies of inborn behavior and on simple forms of learning

Innate Behavior
Performed the same way by all members of a species.
A fixed action pattern is an unchangeable series of actions triggered by a specific stimulus. FAPs ensure that activities essential to survival are performed correctly without practice

Determinants of behavior
Behavior usually involves bot genetic and environmental influences

Behavior ecology
is the study of behavior in an evolutionary context, considering both proximate (immediate) and ultimate (evolutionary) causes of an animal’s actions
Natural selection preserves behaviors that enhances fitness

Learning
change in behavior resulting from experience
Habituation is learning to ignorea repeated, unimportant stimulus

Imprinting
is irreversible learning limited to a sensitive period in the animal’s life
Captive breeding programs for endangered species must provide proper imprinting modls

Spatial learning
involves using landmarks to move through the environment
Kineses and taxes are simple movements in response to a stimulus

Cognitive maps
internal representations of spatial relationships of objects in the surrounding
Migratory animals may move between areas using the sun, stars, landmarks, or other cues

Associative Learning
Many animals can learn by associating external stimuli or their own behavior with positive or negative effects

Social LEarning
involves changes in behaviors that result from observation and imitation of others

Cognition
is the process of perceiving, storing, integrating, and using information
Some animals exhibit problem-solving behavior, which involves complex cognitive processes

Foraging
Includes identifying, obtaining, and eating food
Optimal foraging theory predicts that feeding behavior will maximize energy gain and minimize energy expenditure and risk

signaling
in the form of sounds, scents, displays or touches provides communication needed for interactions between members of the same species

courtship rituals
advertise the species, sex, and physical condition of potential mates

mating systems
may be promiscuous, monogamous, or polygamous
The needs of offspring and certainty of paternity help explain differences in mating systems and parental care by males

Endocrine disruptors
in the environment may cause abnormal behavior as well as reproductive abnormalities

Sociobiology
is the study of social behavior, the interactions of two or more animals, in the context of evolution

Territorial behavior
allocates space and resources
Animals exhibiting this behavior defend their territories

Agonistic behavior
including threats, rituals, and sometimes combat, settles dispute over resources

Dominance hierarchies
partition resources among members of a social group
Chimpanzees exhibit dominance hierarchies and reconciliation behaviors

Altruism
Can usually be explained by the concepts of inclusive fitness and kin selection: An animal can propagate its own genes by helping relatives reproduce
In reciprocal altruism, individuals do favors that may later be repaid
cooperative colonies
increases inclusive fitness when maximing reproduction of close relatives

Human Behavior
has a genetic basis but is strongly influenced by learning

Population ecology
concerned with changes in population size and factorss that regulate populations over time
a population consists of members of a species living in the same pace at the same time

population characteristics
population density is the number of individuals in a given area of volume
environmental and social factors influence the spacing of individuals in various dispersion patterns: clumped (most common), uniform, or random
Life tables and survivorship curves predict an individual’s statistical chance of dying or surviving during each interval in its life
three types of survivorship curves reflect species’ differences in reproduction and mortality

Exponential growth
accelerating increase that occurs when growth is unlimited
G=rN describes J shaped growth curve (G = population growth rate, r = organism’s inherent capacity to reproduce per capita increase, N = population size)

Logistic growth
model that represents the slowing of population growth as a result of limiting factors and the leveling off at carrying capacity, which is the number of individuals the environment can support
equation G = rN((K- N)/K) describes a logistic growth curve where K = carrying capacity and the term (K-N)/K accounts for the leveling off of a curve
carrying capacity: maximum an environment can hold based on the resources present

Limiting Factors
As a population’s density increases, factors such as limited food supply and increased disease or predation may increase the death rate, decrease the brth rate, or both
Abiotic factors such as severe weather may limit many natural populations
Most populations are probably regulated by a mixture of factors, and fluctuations in numbers are common
Some populations undergo regular boom-and-bust cycle of growth and decline

Diversity of life histories
Natural selection shapes a species of life history, the series of evenets from birth through reproduction to death
Populations with so-called r-selected life history traits produce many offspring and grow rapidly in unpredictable environments
Populations with K-selected traits raise few offspring and maintain relatively stable populations
Most species fall between these extremes
Principles of population ecology are useful in managing natural resources

Human Population growth
The human population grew rapidly during 20th century and currently stands at 6.5 billion. Demographic transition, the shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates, has lowered the rate of growth in developed countries. In the developing nations, deaths rates have dropped, but birth rates are still high. The age structure of a population — the proportion of individuals in different age-groups –affects its future growth. Population momentum is the continued growth that occurs despite reduced fertility and as a result of girls in the 0-14 age group of a previously expanding population reaching their childbearing years. Age structures for teh US indicsate social and economic trends

Earth’s Carrying capacity
An ecological footprint estimates the amount of land required by each person or country to produce all the resources it consumes and to absorb all its wastes. it may already be smaller than the population’s ecological footprint. THere is a huge disparity between resource consumption in more developed and less developed nations.

fixed action pattern (FAP)
strong genetic control
repeated actions due to repetitive stimuli that help protect an organism
mating dances, penguin & eggs
unchangeable series of actions triggered by a specific stimulus
once initiated, the sequence is performed in its entirety, regardless of any changes in circumstances
simple behavior
essential to survival so inherited

habituation
animals learns not to respond to a repeated stimulus that conveys little or no information

Learning
modification of behavior as a result of specific experiences
enables animals to change their behaviors in response to changing environmental conditions

innate behavior
behavior under strong genetic control and is performed in virtually the same way by all individuals of a species
improves with experience

imprinting
learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animal’s life and that is generally irreversible
sensitive period

sensitive period
limited phase in an animal’s development when it can learn certain behaviors

kinesis
starting or stopping, changing speed, or turning more or less frequently
i.e. snowbugs

taxis
response directed toward (positive) or a way from (negative) a stimulus

spatial learning
memories of landmarks in their environment that indicate the locations of food, nest sites, prospective mates, and potential hazards
kinesis
wasps

cognitive map
internal representation, or code, of spatial relationships among objects in an animal’s surrounding

migration
regular back-and-forth movement of animals between two geographic areas

Associative Learning
ability to associate one environmental feature with another
ex: an animal learns to link a particular stimulus to a particular outcome (training a dog)
trial-and-error
memory is essential

trial and error learning
associative learning
animal learns to associate one of its own behaviors with a positive or negative effect
animal then tends to repeat the response if it is rewarded or avoid the response if it is harmed

social learning
learning by observing the behavior of others

attitudinal relationship
parties mirror one another’s attitudes, exchanging favors on the spot
favors on the spot
pay a price

Symmetry-based relationship
mutual affection between two parties prompts similar behavior in both directions without need to keep track of daily give-and-take, so long as the overall relationship remains satisfactory

Calculated Relationship
individuals keep track of the benefits they exchange with partners, which helps them to decide to whom to return favors

life table
calculates survivability at a certain age
% survival (y) & % lifespan (x)
humans I, concave down
type II: can die at anytime, straight
type III: concave up

cognition
process carried out by an animal’s nervous system to perceive, store, integrate, and use information gathered by the senses

problem solving
process of applying past experience to overcome obstacles in novel situations
can observe others

foraging
food obtaining behavior
trigger to search for, recognize and capture

search image
concentrate on a particular item of food when it is readily available
mechanism that enables an animal to find particular foods efficiently

optimal foraging theory
an animal’s feeding behavior should provide maximal energy gain with minimal energy expense and minimal risk of being eaten while foraging

agnostic behavior
two animals, of the same species, fighting over a mate
not very common

signal
stimulus transmitted by one animal to another animal
visual, electrical, chemical
can use more than one at the same time

sociobiology
evolutionary theory to the study and interpretation of social behavior
study of how social behaviors are adaptive and how they could have evolved by natural selection

territory
area usually fixed in location which individuals defend from which other members of the same species are usually excluded

dominance hierarchy
ranking of individuals based on social interactions
common

inclusive fitness
an individual’s success at perpetuating its genes by producing its own offspring and by helping close relatives

reciprocal altruism
an altruistic act that may be repaid at a later time by the beneficiary
appears in the fairly rare, limited largely to species with social groups stable enough that individuals have many chances to exchange aid

dispersion pattern
the way individuals are spaced within their area

sustainable resource management
harvesting crops without damaging the resource

demographic transition
a shift from zero population growth in which birthrates and death rates are high but roughly equal, to zero population growth

population momentum
increased proportion of women of childbearing agei in the population

ecological footprint
an estimate of the amount of land acquired to provide the raw materials an individual or a nation consumes, including food, fuel, water, housing, and waste disposal

Interspecific Interactions
Relationships among 2 different species.

Interspecific Competition
competition between animals involving 2 or more species.