Combo with "Ch. 1 American Government" and 5 others

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government
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is a system or an organization for exercising authority over a body of people
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authority
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When those in government exercise power recognized by citizens as right and proper, they are exercising
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Rules can be thought of as the how
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How do rules fit into the concept of \”who gets what, and how?\”
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institutions
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are the organizations where government power is exercised and where political struggle takes place.
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capitalist
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The market controls economic decisions in a ________ economy.
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procedural guarantees
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Government assurances that the rules will work smoothly and treat everyone fairly, with no promises of particular outcomes, are
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substantive guarantees
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Government assurances of particular outcomes or results are
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an authoritarian government
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A political system in which the state holds all power over the social order is
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John Locke
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introduced the notion of a social contract
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the soil
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Jus soli is the legal principle that defines citizenship as the right by
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naturalization
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The legal process of acquiring citizenship for a person who was not born a U.S. citizen is known as
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an ideology
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A set of beliefs about politics, the economy, and society that helps people make sense of their world is called
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libertarians
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Those who believe that government should be strictly limited in all areas of life are called
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the market controls economic conditions in capitalists economies, whereas politicians make economic conditions in socialists economies
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The key difference between pure capitalist economies and pure socialist economies is that
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social democracy
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Many European countries follow the theory of _____, which is a hybrid system combining a capitalist economy and government that supports equality.
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citizens have rights as well as obligations, but subjects have only obligations
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What is the key difference between a citizen and a subject?
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citizen consent
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According to the social contract, what is the source of government’s legitimacy?
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he believed participatory democracy was the only moral form of government
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James Madison defended the creation of a republican form of government in the Constitution, for all of the following reasons EXCEPT
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government makes substantive decisions about how people ought to live there lives; government merely guarantees that there are fair rules and leaves the rest to individual control
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In authoritarian systems ______, whereas in nonauthoritarian systems ______.
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narrower because of our shared political culture
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Compared with the situation found in most countries, the range of the ideological spectrum in the United States is
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procedural
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Americans believe in equality of opportunity, which is a __________ concept of equality
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regulated capitalism
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Which of the following reflects the type of economic system found in the United States?
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the ability to get other people to do what you want
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Power is defined in your text as
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totalitarian
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Absolute power is exercised over every aspect of life in a(n) ______ government.
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birth
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Most Americans acquire U.S. citizenship by
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The Declaration of Independence reflects the political philosophy of
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John Locke
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The Declaration of Independence was first and foremost a(n)
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political document
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To justify the revolution to the colonists, Thomas Jefferson included in the Declaration of Independence all of the following EXCEPT
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the argument that monarchy is illegitimate.
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Shays’s Rebellion demonstrated
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the frustration of debtors in the wake of the Revolutionary War.
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The delegates to the Constitutional Convention were
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the most educated, powerful, and wealthy citizens of the new country.
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The founders adopted a federal system
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as a compromise between those who wanted a strong central government and those who wanted to retain strong state governments.
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The delegate to the Constitutional Convention who had the greatest impact on the document was
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James Madison
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The _____ Plan proposed equal representation for all states in the legislature
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New Jersey
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The Great Compromise
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established a legislature with equal state representation in the Senate and representation by state population in the House.
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In the United States
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legislative, executive, and judicial powers are handled by separate institutions.
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The Supreme Court has interpreted the ______ clause of the Constitution so broadly that there are very few restrictions on what Congress can do.
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necessary and proper
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According to James Madison, factions are best controlled by the creation of a large republic because
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no faction will be a majority, which means that no faction will be able to get its way
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In Federalist No. 10, James Madison warned against the dangers of
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factions
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Article III of the Constitution
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creates the Supreme Court but allows Congress to establish lower courts
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In Federalist No. 78, Hamilton argued that the judiciary would be the least threatening branch of government because
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it does not control the military or the budget of the nation
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The constitutional safeguard that places legislative, executive, and judicial powers in different hands is called
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separation of powers
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Under the three‐fifths compromise
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each slave would count as three‐fifths of a person for purposes of representation.
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The central goal of the delegates to the Constitutional Convention was to
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increase the power of the national government.
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Shays’s Rebellion was significant because it
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led to the calling of the Constitutional Convention.
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The significance of the Federalist Papers is that
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without them the states might not have ratified the Constitution.
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The Supreme Court was able to develop its role as interpreter of the Constitution because
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Article III is silent on the matter.
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In drafting the Constitution the founders
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took more from the Virginia Plan than from the New Jersey Plan.
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The amendment process for the Constitution
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was designed to allow growth and change but not to be too easy.
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During the period of time during which the United States was governed by the Articles of Confederation, elites came to fear tyranny by
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the people
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The authors of your text suggest that Thomas Jefferson might have changed John Locke’s argument for government to protect property to protection of \”the pursuit of happiness\” because
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Jefferson was trying to gain the support of those who had little property to protect.
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A major debate between the Federalists and Anti‐Federalists concerned the
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balance of power between the federal and state governments.
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The New Deal increased the scope of both national and state powers by
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redefining the purpose of American government.
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The enumerated powers are
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listed in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution.
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The necessary and proper clause of the U.S. Constitution states that
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Congress has the power to pass laws that are necessary and proper for the carrying out of its other powers.
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The supremacy clause of the U.S. Constitution states that
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the Constitution is the supreme law of the land.
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Both the states and the national government may exercise all of the following powers EXCEPT
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levy import or export taxes on goods
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The theory that defines the state and national governments as essentially separate from each other and carrying out independent functions is
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dual federalism
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A ______ system is one in which the central government ultimately has all of the power.
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unitary
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A ______ system is one in which the local units hold all of the power, and the central government is dependent on them for its existence.
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confederal
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The U.S. Supreme Court affected the relationship between the national and state governments in its rulings in
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McCulloch v. Maryland and Gibbons v. Ogden.
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In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court ruled that
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New York did not have the right to create a steamboat monopoly on the Hudson River.
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McCulloch v. Maryland increased the power of the federal government by
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interpreting the \”necessary and proper\” clause of the Constitution very broadly.
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Gibbons v. Ogden increased the power of the national government by interpreting the
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commerce clause of the Constitution very broadly
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In the early years of the New Deal, the Supreme Court ruled that many New Deal programs
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were unconstitutional
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Federal funds provided to states for a broad purpose and unrestricted by detailed requirements are called
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block grants
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Federal orders that require states to operate and pay for programs created at the national level are called
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unfunded mandates
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The fact that the federal government was able to get the states to adopt a uniform drinking age is an example of the
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ability of the national government to use its funding authority to achieve indirectly what it cannot achieve directly
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Although the Constitution provides for both national and state powers,
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the balance between state and national powers has shifted considerably since 1787
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One reason for the growth of the national government’s power and influence has been
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heightened expectations and demands placed on the federal government.
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The rulings of the Supreme Court under John Marshall contributed to enhancement of
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the power of the national government
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One case in which the Supreme Court ruled that the federal government had overstepped its boundaries is
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Printz v. United States
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The federal government has been able to use categorical grants to coerce states into doing what it wants most of the time because
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states have become financially dependent on this aid
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The enumerated powers are important because they
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showed the founders’ commitment to creating a strong national government.
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The New Deal increased the power of the federal government in regard to
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business and the economy
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The Supreme Court has interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment to
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strike down racial segregation in the states
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Bills of attainder are laws
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under which specific persons or groups are detained and sentenced without trial
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The right of an accused to be brought before a judge and informed of the charges and evidence against him or her is known as
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habeas corpus
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The Supreme Court began the process of applying the Bill of Rights to the states
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in 1897
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The source of authority cited by the Supreme Court for applying the Bill of Rights to the states is
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the Fourteenth Amendment to the Constitution
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_____ describes the process of applying the Bill of Rights to the states on a case‐by‐case basis.
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Selective incorporation
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The establishment clause guarantees
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that government will not create and support an official state church.
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According to the Supreme Court, the saying of prayers in public schools
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violates the establishment clause
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The Lemon test established that
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there shall be no excessive entanglement of government and religion.
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Which of the following is NOT offered by the textbook as a reason that free speech is valuable?
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It is good for economic development
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In attempting to decide when speech can be prohibited, the Supreme Court has
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made it harder for the government to suppress speech.
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The idea that language shapes behavior and, therefore, should be regulated to control its social effects is known as
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political correctness
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In the landmark case of Near v. Minnesota, the Supreme Court established the rule that
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prior restraint is permissible only in rare cases of extreme emergency.
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Written defamation of character is known as
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libel
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In the conflict between media access to a trial and a defendant’s right to a fair trial, the Supreme Court has
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generally permitted press access to most stages of the legal proceedings.
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In 2008 and 2010 the Supreme Court ruled that the Second Amendment
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establishes an individual right to bear arms.
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Under the Fourth Amendment, police officers seeking to conduct a search
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can search a car without a warrant if they have probable cause to believe a crime was committed.
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The exclusionary rule is the Supreme Court rule that states that
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evidence seized in violation of a defendant’s constitutional rights cannot be used to obtain a conviction.
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Miranda v. Arizona held that
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police have to advise people of their constitutional rights prior to questioning.
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The Supreme Court has ruled that the right to refuse medical life‐support
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is a matter for individuals to decide for themselves.
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The difference between civil rights and civil liberties is
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that civil rights involve government action to secure rights of citizenship while civil liberties involve individual freedoms that limit the power of government.
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John Locke’s theory of the _____ was based on the notion that people would agree to give up some rights in exchange for the greater common good.
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social contract
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It is difficult for the Supreme Court to determine the exact meaning of obscenity because
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the whole area is so subjective that wide disagreement exists.
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In the Gideon v. Wainwright ruling, the Supreme Court
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incorporated the Sixth Amendment’s guarantee of the right to counsel.
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The Supreme Court’s ruling in Griswold v. Connecticut is significant because it
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opened the door for a variety of claims regarding the right to privacy.
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The exclusionary rule is an important aspect of due process because it
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serves as a protection against police abuse of power.
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The 2008 presidential election was important because it
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demonstrated that women and African Americans can be serious contenders for the presidency.
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_____ require that the government have a compelling state interest for treating people differently.
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Suspect classifications
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In an attempt to make the black codes unconstitutional, the _________ amendment was passed, which stated, in part, that no state could deprive any person of life, liberty, or property without due process of the law, or deny any person equal protection of the law.
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Fourteenth
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In Brown v. Board of Education, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that
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segregated schools were inherently unequal because the very fact of segregation made blacks feel unequal.
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The tax levied as a requirement for voting was the _____ tax.
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poll
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During World War II, Japanese Americans
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were placed in detainment camps for national security purposes.
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Jim Crow laws were significant because they
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restricted rights of African Americans even after the passage of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments.
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The impact of the Plessy v. Ferguson decision was to
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authorize the segregation of whites and blacks
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The civil rights movement of the 1950s‐1960s was most successful in eliminating ______, but was far less successful in eliminating ______.
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de jure discrimination; de facto discrimination
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Which of the following has the Supreme Court ruled regarding gay and lesbian rights?
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Sodomy laws are unconstitutional
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The legal methods used to deny African Americans the right to vote, such as literacy tests and poll taxes, were overcome by
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passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Twenty‐fourth Amendment to the Constitution.
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_____ discrimination arises from or is supported by law.
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De jure
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The 1848 Convention in Seneca Falls, New York, signified the
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birth of the women’s rights movement
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Which of the following is NOT constitutional?
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Fulfilling quotas of minorities in school admissions
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Social and economic statistics tend to show that
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inequality still pervades the American system.
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One effect of casino gambling on reservations is that
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Native Americans have achieved new financial prosperity by parlaying their status as semi‐sovereign nations.
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The major impact of the Brown v. Board of Education decision was that it
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served as a catalyst for the civil rights movement
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The Americans with Disabilities Act was controversial because
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many of the required changes in physical accommodations are extremely expensive to install.
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The Supreme Court ruled in 2003 that
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racial profiling is unconstitutional
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What is the definition of affirmative action?
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A policy of creating opportunities for members of certain groups as a substantive remedy for past discrimination
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During the Reconstruction period, southerners sought to
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maintain power and the status quo
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What is the definition of strict scrutiny?
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A heightened standard of review used by the Supreme Court to assess the constitutionality of laws that treat individuals differently based on race
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The ______ Amendment gives women the right to vote.
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nineteenth
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The concepts of strict scrutiny and suspect classification are used by the Supreme Court to answer what question?
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When can the law treat people differently?
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While women have achieved a level of formal equality,
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discrimination remains in the workplace and women are underrepresented in many areas of employment.
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The term \”constituency\” refers to
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the people in a district who are served by a representative.
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Casework (or constituency service)
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assist people in dealing with the bureaucracy
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The major differences between the House and the Senate include all of the following EXCEPT
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their power in the legislative process
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Which of the following is NOT among the congressional checks and balances in relation to the executive branch?
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The power to veto acts of the president
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Budget bills must
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originate in the house
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The job of confirming presidential appointments belongs to the
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Senate
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The reallocation of congressional seats among the states every ten years, following the census, is known as
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reappointment
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The number of representatives with voting privileges in the House of Representatives
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Is currently set at 435 members
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The process of redrawing congressional districts to match population shifts in states with more than one representative is called
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redistricting
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Redrawing congressional district boundaries to favor a particular group or party is known as
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gerrymandering
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An open seat is one for which a(n)
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incumbent is not running
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According to the textbook, what has happened to the coattail effect in recent years?
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It has decreased in importance due to declining party ties.
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What former occupations are most common among members of Congress?
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lawyers and businesspeople
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_______ are important in Congress because they organize the chambers.
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Parties
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The greatest importance of standing committees is that they
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increase congressional power by allowing detailed analysis and modification of legislation.
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Which of the following is the extremely powerful congressional committee that determines when debate on a bill will take place?
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The House Rules Committee
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A _______ committee is appointed to deal with an issue or a problem before Congress that does not fall within any standing committee’s scope.
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select
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When different versions of the same bill pass in the House and the Senate,
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a conference committee is formed to bridge the gap between the bills.
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Cloture is a vote that
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attempts to end a Senate filibuster
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The most important factor in determining a member of Congress’s vote is his or her
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party affiliation
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During the constitutional process of removing a president from office,
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the House impeaches and the Senate puts the president on trial and removes the president from office.
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What must Congress do for a bill to become law after a president has vetoed it?
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Both houses of Congress must override the veto by a two‐thirds majority vote in both chambers.
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Most of the hard work of considering legislative alternatives and drafting legislation occurs
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within congressional standing committees.
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Members of the majority party in Congress have an important advantage because they
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hold all the leadership positions, including committee chairs.
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Most bills introduced in Congress usually
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die by inaction at the committee stage.

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