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Com210 midterm study

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articulation
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pronouncing the words correctly, rather than nothin, gunna, mornin
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stationary microphone
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most common microphone attached to a desk or something of that sort
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We usually believe verbal messages because they are more difficult to fake. true/false?
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false
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extemporaneous delivery
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Delivering a speech in a conversational style from a well-developed and researched outline
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Effective speech delivery for most North American listeners has been described as “platform conversation. True/false?
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true
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substituting
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Without uttering a word, an audience can be quieted by holding up the palm of your hand to calm a noisy crowd. This is the nonverbal function of
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Nonverbal communication is communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning. True/false?
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true
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inflection
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The variation in the pitch of the voice
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One of the best ways to prepare for a Q & A session is to anticipate the questions you may be asked. According to the text, how should you anticipate questions?
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by analyzing your audience, thinking of possible questions those particular listeners might ask, and then rehearsing your answers.
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emotional cognation
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According to ______ theory, a speaker should pay attention to how emotions are communicated when delivering a speech because people tend to “catch” the emotions of others.
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Extemporaneous speaking is the approach most communication teachers recommend for most situations. True/false?
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True
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When a speaker uses appropriate levels of eye contact, moves purposefully, and smiles while talking, the speaker is engaging in _____ behaviors
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immediacy
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When asked to deliver a speech at the last moment, the type of delivery style you will use is
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impromptu
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The most important aspect of speech delivery in North America is eye contact. True/false?
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true
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Given the task of preparing a speech, Susan decides to speak from an outline that can help her sound conversational and spontaneous. She wants to be able to adapt her remarks to the feedback she receives from the audience. She also wants to make more eye contact with the audience. What method of delivery will be best, given Susan’s speech goals
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extemporaneous speaking
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There is NOT one ideal style of delivery or set of prescribed gestures that is appropriate for all audiences. True/False?
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true
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What is most important when a speaker is communicating emotional feelings, attitudes, likes, and dislikes to an audience
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non verbal communication
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A voluntary audience has externally imposed reasons for being there. True/False?
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False
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______ is the culturally constructed and psychologically based perception of one’s self as feminine or masculine
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Gender
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What should a true attentive audience act like?
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An attentive audience doesn’t move much
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Identifying differing cultural issues and similarities can help you establish common ground with your audience. True/False
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False
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When Robert asked his class, “How many of you just don’t have enough time to do all the things you want to do in a day?” as his speech introductory device, almost everyone in the audience raised their hands. This audience reaction is
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an indication of nonverbal responsiveness
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People from ______ cultures are more likely to perceive people in leadership roles—including speakers—as credible
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High-power culture
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attitude
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reflects likes or dislikes
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belief
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what you hold to be true or false
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value
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an enduring concept of good and bad/right and wrong
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If you think the sun will rise in the east in the morning, you hold a(n) ______ about the sun based on what you perceive to be true or false
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belief
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Trying to determine what an audience believes or thinks about a speech topic is an aspect of _____ analysis
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psychological analysis
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A speaker who gathers information about the listeners, analyzes this information, and adapts his or her speech to them is demonstrating the idea of a(n)
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audience-centered speaker
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As a requirement for his biology class, Jorge must attend a speech by a visiting scholar in biology. What kind of audience will Jorge be a part of at this event?
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A captive audience
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A situational audience analysis includes an examination of the _________
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time and place of your speech, the size of your audience, and the occasion
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Statistical information on population characteristics such as age, race, gender, education, and religious views is known as ____
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demographics
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A public speaker seeks to establish a(n) ______, or ongoing connection, with audience members by identifying common ground with them
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relationship
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If you adapt to your audience by abandoning your own values and sense of truth, you will become an unethical speaker rather than an audience-centered one? True/False
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true
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The portion of a person’s background that relates to nationality or religious heritage is known as ______
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ethnicity
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A survey allows you to gather both demographic information and information about what audience members like or dislike, believe to be true or false, or think is good or bad about the topic or issues you are discussing? True/False
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True
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As part of planning for her class speech on the Patriot Act, Brenda passed around a brief questionnaire asking whether her classmates were for or against the Act, whether they thought parts or the entire Act should change, etc. Was this a good idea, according to your text?
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Yes; this form of psychological audience analysis is a good thing to do for any kind of audience
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One of the main factors that will shape your audience’s attitude toward you is your credibility or the perception of you as trustworthy, knowledgeable, and interesting. True/False?
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True
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Audience members who place more importance on nonverbal than verbal messages are likely from _____ cultures; whereas those placing more emphasis on what was said than the nonverbal messages are likely from _____ cultures.
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high-context; low-context
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When you analyze an audience’s income, occupation, and education you are analyzing their:
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socioeconomic status
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public speaking
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process of presenting to an audience, small or large
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why is it important to study public speaking?
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important quality which is essential to employers
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empowerment
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to have resources & info allowing you to achieve a goal
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critical thinking
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to be able to listen & analyze info to judge accuracy and relevance
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how will public speaking help your career goals?
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employers look for public speaking as one of the best qualities, and it’s the key to success in your personal life
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Communication process of public speaking consists of
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1) an action, by which a source transmits a message through a channel to a receiver & 2) a interaction, in which the receivers feedback and context of the communication add to the action. and 3) a transaction, which source & recover simultaneously send messages to build a shared meaning
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source
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info/ideas
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encode
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translate ideas into images or symbols
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code
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non verbal symbols
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message
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speech, how/what is said
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decode
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contradictory nonverbal symbols
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channels
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messages transmitted through them from the sender to the receiver
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receiver
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individual that is decoding the message that was sent by the sender
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external noise
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actual physical noise // ex. baby crying
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internal noise
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psychological affects, such as one speaking to themselves in an internal monologue
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feedback
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audience responds to message to provide feedback
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context
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environment in which the speech occurs
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rhetoric
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use of words and symbols to achieve a goal
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declamation
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delivery of an already famous address
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elocution
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expression of emotion through posture
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Is it ethical to deliver a speech that was already written or delivered by someone else?
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No, because it could easily be plagiarized & by using the other persons speech you’re being unethical and have dishonest intentions towards your audience, also you aren’t credible for the work
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speech topic
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key focus of content in the speech
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What should you think of as you’re preparing a speech?
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Always make choices based on the audience. Analyze the audience and make your speech accordingly. Consider the various cultural backgrounds, age, occasion, socioeconomic status…etc
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3 questions to consider while trying to narrow the speech topic
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who is the audience; what are my interests, talents and experiences; and what is the occasion?
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general purpose
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to inform, persuade or entertain // ex: to inform
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specific purpose
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a concise statement of the desired audience response, indicating what you want your listeners to remember, feel, or do when you finish speaking // ex: At the end of my speech, my audience will be able to ______
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central idea
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one sentence summary of the speech content
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main ideas
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the key points of a speech
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invention
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the development or discovery of ideas and insights
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What 3 questions do you consider in attempt to subdivide your central idea into key points?
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1) Does the central idea have logical divisions? 2) Can you think of several reasons the central idea is true? 3) Can you support the central idea with the series of steps?
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Looking for logical divisions in your speech topic is the simplest way to determine key points. True/false
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true
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supporting material
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should be personal & concrete, and appealing to the audience – also relatable and interesting to the topic of the speech. Interesting supporting material could be from vivid descriptions so the audience can visualize it.
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disposition
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the organization and arrangement of ideas and illustrations
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John received an assignment for public speaking. What key pieces of info should he keep in mind while preparing for his speech?
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Consider/analyze audience, interests/experiences, occasion and culture differences of audience
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Is the best way to generate main ideas from a central idea logical divisions, reasons or steps?
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Logical divisons
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What is the best way to rehearse a speech?
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Rehearse your speech aloud, standing just as you will when you deliver it to your audience. Practice eye contact with an imaginary audience, and make sure to project your voice
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Preparing early for your speech and spending time rehearsing your delivery will enhance the overall quality of your speech. True/false?
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true
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free speech
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legally protected speech/speech acts
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ethics
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the beliefs , values, and moral principles by which people determine what is right and wrong
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first amendment
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was written to guarantee that “congress shall make no law…abridging the freedom of speech”
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What is unlawful in regards to free speech? In other words, what can you not say?
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Lawful to restrict claims that presented “a clear and present danger”; and led to the founding of the civil liberties union
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speech act
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In 1989, the supreme court defended the burring of the US flag as a “speech act” protected by the 1 amendment. Its nonverbal communication that receives the same laws for free speech
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How has free speech been challenged/defended throughout US history?
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Free speech became a right of the US citizen. Speech act of 1989 protects nonverbal speech // ex: burring of the flag. Patriot Act was widely criticized. In 21st century, free speech has become an issue of global concern.
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ethical speech
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Honest, tolerable, and responsible speech that has clear reasonable goals presented to the audience; doesn’t try tricking them into false expectations or hidden agendas
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If your overall objective is to inform or persuade, it is probably ethical; if your goal is to demean, coerce, or manipulate, it is unethical. True/false?
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true
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To have an ethical speech, one must state evidence that could be potentially damaging to your case in order to not manipulate your audience & have clear intentions. True/false?
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true
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accommodation
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sensitivity to feelings. needs, interest, and backgrounds of other people
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Knowingly offering false or misleading information to an audience is an ethical violation with potentially serious consequences. True/false?
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true
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plagiarizing
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presenting someones words or ideas, as if they were your own
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patch writing
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failing to give credit for phrases taken from another source
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oral citation
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info found and used in speech spoken during the presentation, either directly before or after fact was stated; includes author, title, year of publication
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written citation
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citing source in print in a conventional citing way, includes the author, title and year of publication
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According to 75 to 98 percent of college students admit to having cheated at least once. True/false?
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true
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credibility
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audiences perception of a speaker as competent, knowledgeable, dynamic, and trustworthy: includes ethos, logos, and pathos
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Five ways to be ethical in public speaking
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1) having a clear, responsible goal 2) use sound evidence and reasoning 3) be sensitive and tolerant to differences 4) be honest 5) dont plagarize
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listening
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process which receivers select, attend to, understand, remember the senders messages
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select
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to single out a message from several competing messages
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attend
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to focus on incoming information for further processing
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understand
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to assign meaning to the information to which you attend
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remember
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recall ideas and information
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respond
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to react with a change in behavior to a speakers message
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working memory theory of listening
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theory that suggests that listeners find it difficult to concentrate and remember when their short term working memories are full
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We often tune out because we hear so much information that we get tired of listening is an example of what?
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information overload
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How do you keep your audience from tuning out as a speaker?
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Make sure you speech has a balance between new information and supporting material such as stories and examples.
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What are two ways to fight information overload as a speaker?
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Be redundant, repeat key ideas so if listeners miss it the first time they’ll hear it the sec on time. Also balance of facts and stories is extremely important
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How do you stay attentive as a listener rather than zone out?
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Recognize you’re not listening, sit up straight, actually listen to the speaker/adjust your listening, and remain focused on the message of the speaker
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prejudice
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preconceived opinions, attitudes, and beliefs about a person, place, thing, or message. your ability to understand the message decreases
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Deciding a speech that has a topic you have little value for before you even hear the message is an example of prejudice. True/false?
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true
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How do you interpret non verbal messages?
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consider nonverbal cues in the context, look for clusters of clues, look for clues that communicate liking
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What are 5 barriers to effective listening?
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info overload, personal concerns, outside distractions, prejudice & differences in speech rate compared to thought rate
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How are four ways you can become a better listener?
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Listen mindfully, listen skillfully, listen with your eyes as well as your ears, and listen ethically
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listening styles
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preferred ways of making sense out of spoken messages
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relational orientated listener
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comfortable listening to people express feeling and emotions
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task orientated listener
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wants people to get to the point
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analytical listener
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rejects messages because they don’t have enough adequate evidence to support the conclusion
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critical listener
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spends time evaluating the messages you hear
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critical listening
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listening to evaluate quality or value of the info you hear
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inference
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conclusion made on partial info that hasn’t been directly observed
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facts
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infer that has been proven to be true by direct observation
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evidence
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facts, examples, opinions, and stats a speaker uses to support conclusion
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What are 3 ways to improve listening and critical thinking skills?
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Separate facts from inferences, evaluate the quality of evidence, evaluate the underlying logic and reasoning
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logic
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formal system of rules used to reach a conclusion
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reasoning
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process of drawing a conclusion from evidence
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rhetorical criticism
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process of using a method or standards to evaluate the effectiveness and appropriateness of messages
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What are some examples on how to give feedback to others?
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be descriptive, be positive, be specific, be constructive, be sensitive, be realistic
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Public speakers are rhetoricians who uses symbols to achieve their goals. True/false?
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true
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demographic audience analysis
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examining demographic information about an audience so as to develop and clear and effective message
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What are three ways to become an audience centered speaker?
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Gather information about your audience, analyze info about your audience, adapt to your audience
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open ended questions
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unrestricted answers by not limiting to choices or alternatives
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close ended questions
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offer alternatives on what to choose; true/false, multiple choice, agree/disagree
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audience analysis
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process of examining info about those who are expected to listen to a speech
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common ground
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similarities between a speaker and audience members in attitudes, values, beliefs, or behaviors
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gender
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culturally constructed and psychologically based perception of ones self as feminine or masculine
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sex
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persons biological status as male or female
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culture
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a learned system of knowledge, behavior, attitudes, beliefs, values and normals that is shared by a group of people
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ethnocentrism
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assumption that ones own cultural perspectives and methods are superior to those of other cultures
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target audience
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specific segment of an audience that you most want to influence
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socioeconomic status
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persons perceived importance and influence based on income, occupation, and education level
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situational audience analysis
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examination of the time and place of a speech, the audience size, and the speaking occasion in order to develop a clear and effective message
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brainstorming
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creative problem solving technique used to generate ideas
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behavioral objective
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wording of a specific purpose in terms of desired audience behavior
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What are three ways to create a specific purpose?
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use words that refer to observable or measurable behavior, limit the specific purpose to a single idea, make sure your specific purpose reflects the interests, expectations & knowledge level of your audience
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declarative sentence
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grammatically complete sentence, rather than a clause, phrase or question
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blue print
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the central idea of a speech plus a preview of the main ideas
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List 5 potential sources of supporting material for a speech
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personal knowledge & experience, online databases, internet, interviews, traditional library holdings
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world wide web
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primary information delivery system of the internet
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vertical search engine
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a website that indexes world wide web info into a specific field
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boolean search
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advanced web searching technique that allows a user to narrow a subject or key word search by adding various requirements
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domain
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category in which a web site is located on the internet, indicated by the last three letters of the sites url
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online databases
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subscription based electronic resources that may offer access to abstracts and or the full texts of entries, as well as bibliographic data
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stacks
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libraries collection of books
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preliminary bibliography
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list of potential resources to be used in preparation of a speech
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Five strategies for a methodical research process:
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take notes, assess the usefulness of resources, locate resources, develop a preliminary bibliography, idenitify possible presentation aids
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illustration
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a story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea, issue, or problem speaker is discussing
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brief illustration
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an unelaborated example, only sentence or two
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extended illustration
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a detailed example
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hypothetical illustration
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describes a situation or event that hasn’t actually occurred
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description
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a word picture of something
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explanation
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a statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present form or existed in its past form
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definition
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a statement about what a term means or how it is applied in a specific instance
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definition by classification
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a dictionary definition is constructed by both placing a term in the general class to which is belong and differentiating it from all other members of that class
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operational definition
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a statement that shows how something works or what it does
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analogy
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a comparison
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literal analogy
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a comparison between two similar things
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figurative analogy
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a comparison between two essentially dissimilar things that share some common feature on which the comparison depends
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statistics
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numerical data that summarize facts or samples
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primary source
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the original collector and interpreter of information or data
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secondary source
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an individual, organization, or publication that reports information or data gathered by another entity
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opinions
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statements expressing an individuals attitudes, beliefs, or values
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expert testimony
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an opinion offered by someone who is an authority on a subject
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lay testimony
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an opinion or description offered by a non expert who has firsthand experience
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literary quotation
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an opinion or description by a writer who speaks in a memorable and often poetic way
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What are the six types of best supporting material for a speech?
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descriptions & explanations, definitions, illustrations, analogies, statistics, opinions
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symposium
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a public discussion in which a series of short speeches is presented to an audience
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forum
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a question and answer session that usually follows a public discussion or symposium
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panel discussion
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a group discussion designed to inform an audience about issues or a problem or to make recommendations
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public relations speeches
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speeches designed to inform the public, to strengthen alliances with them, and in some cases to recommend policy
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karios
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circumstances surrounding the speech or the occasion for a speech
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ceremonial speech
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a speech delivered on a special occasion for celebration, thanksgiving, praise, or mourning
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speech of introduction
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a speech that provides information about another speaker
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toast
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a brief salute to a momentous occasion
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award presentation
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a speech that accompanies the conferring of an award
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nomination speech
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a speech that officially names someone as a candidate for an office or a position
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acceptance speech
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a speech of thanks for an award, nomination, or other honor
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keynote address
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a speech that sea the theme and tone for a meeting or conference
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commencement address
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a speech delivered at a graduation or commencement ceremony
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commemorative address
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a speech delivered during ceremonious held in memory of some past even and/or the person or persons involved
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eulogy
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a speech of tribute delivered when someone has died
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after dinner speech
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a humorous presentation, usually delivered in conjunction with a mealtime meeting or banquet
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pun
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the use of double meanings to create humor
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spoonerism
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a phrase in which the initial sounds of words are switched
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malapropism
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the mistaken use of a word that sounds much like the intended word
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hyperbole
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exaggeration
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understatement
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downplaying a fact or event
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verbal irony
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saying the opposite of what one means
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wit
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relating an incident that takes an unexpected turn at the end
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List the 9 types of ceremonial speeches:
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introductions, toasts, award presentations, nominations, acceptances, keynote addresses, commemorative addresses, commencement addresses, eulogies,
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speech to inform
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a speech that teaches others new information, ideas, concepts, principles, or processes in order to enhance their knowledge or understand about something
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List 5 types of informative speeches:
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speeches about objects, speeches about procedures, speeches about people, speeches about ideas, speeches about events
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pedagogy
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the art and science of teaching children
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andragogy
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the art and science of teaching adults
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word picture
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a vivid description that appeals to the senses
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List four strategies to enhance audience understanding?
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Speak the clarity, use principles and techniques of adult learning, clarify unfamiliar ideas or complex processes,
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What are three strategies to maintain audience interest?
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tell a story, present information that relates to your listeners, use the unexpected
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What are three reasons delivery is important to a speaker?
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listeners expect effective delivery, listeners make emotional connects with you through delivery, listeners believe what they see
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non verbal communication
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communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning
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nonverbal expectancy theory
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a communication theory that suggests that if listeners expectations about how communication should be expressed are violated, listeners will feel lies favorable toward the communicator of the message
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emotional contagion theory
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a theory suggesting that people tend to catch the emotions of others
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manuscript speaking
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reading a speech from a written text
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What are four methods of delivery?
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manuscript speaking, memorized speaking, impromptu speaking, extemporaneous speaking
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memorized speaking
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delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
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impromptu speaking
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delivering a speech without advance preparation
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extemporaneous speaking
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speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech
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What are 7 characteristics of effective delivery?
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gestures, eye contact, movement, posture, facial expression, vocal delivery, personal appearance
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immediacy
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the degree of perceived physical or psychological closeness between people
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immediacy behaviors
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behaviors such a making eye contact, making appropriate gestures, and adjusting physical distance that enhance the quality of the relationship between speaker and listeners
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volume
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the softness or loudness of a speakers voice
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dialect
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a consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region
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pronunciation
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the use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately
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pitch
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how high or low the voice sounds
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lavaliere microphone
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a microphone that can be clipped to an article of clothing or worn on a cord around your neck
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boom microphone
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a microphone that is suspended from a bar mode to follow the speaker, often used in movies and TV