COM180 Midterm 1

question

What are the personal, professional and public benefits of enhancing your public speaking skills?
answer

personal- special event, such as a toast at a wedding prof.- job (sports broadcaster, comedian ect…) Public-helps participate in democracy
question

What is the difference between the linear and transactional model of communication?
answer

Linear- 3 parts sender channel and receiver trans- circular process
question

Define and give an original example of each of the elements of the communication process
answer

Encoding Decoding communicator message
question

Which of the elements of the communication process do you think has the greatest impact on the way a message is interpreted. Explain.
answer

Encoding important because someone can talk all day but if the listener isn’t engaging theres no point Decoding the listener cant get anything out of an incoherent pitch
question

What are the three types of speeches? For each of the three types of speeches, give two examples of an occasion or situation in which that type of speech might be given
answer

1. informative speech- the presenter will share info (teachers & job training) 2. persuasive speech, the presenter will attempt to reinforce or change their audiences’ beliefs, attitudes, feelings, or values (sales pitch or political debate) 3. commemorate- tell of shared experiences (toast from the best man or eulogy)
question

List the eleven speaking competencies. For each competency listed, describe the differences between the advanced speaker and the inexperienced speaker.
answer

1. useful topic 2. engaging introduction 3. clear organization 4. well-supported ideas 5. closure in conclusion 6. clear and vivid language 7. suitable vocal expression 8. corresponding non-verbals 9. adapted to the audience 10. adept use of visual aids 11. convincing persuasion
question

Four kinds of Noise
answer

Psychological noise -mental states or emotional states that impede message transmission or reception physical noise- the actual sound level Physiological noise- bodily processes and states that interfere with a message Cultural noise- message interference that results from differences in peoples’ worldview
question

What historical events gave rise to Athens establishing democracy for its citizens?
answer

Ceylon took control then was over thrown, Draco made laws punishable by new standards from before being an eye for an eye to now being specific crime ad punishment
question

Who was Draco, and what did he do in Athens?
answer

Draco was an elderly and wise man who set up laws in Athens that took over eye for an eye idea. he now had clear crime and punishments
question

Under whose reign did Athens enjoy its greatest glory, and why?
answer

Under Pericles was Athens greatest glory- start of pure democracy, poor was now represented in the governtment, legislative system makes laws
question

Who was Plato, and what form of inquiry did he advocate?
answer

dialect-debate intended to resolve a conflict between two contradictory, or apparently contradictory ideas or elements logically, establishing truths on both sides rather than disproving one argument
question

Who was Aristotle, and what is he most noted for?
answer

Aristotle wrote that rhetoric is the means persuasion. He was most noted for becoming the primary source of all later rhetorical theory.
question

What did the Romans borrow from the Greeks and how did they improve upon it?
answer

– The Romans borrowed or copied ideas on Greek rhetoric. – They improved upon it by refining and identifying the subject of rhetoric into five parts – Invention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, and Delivery.
question

Why was Cicero considered to be the greatest Roman orator?
answer

He gives us insight into the general nature of rhetorical instruction in the first century B.C. He believed that the perfect orator should be able to speak wisely and eloquently on any subject with a dignified, restrained delivery
question

What did Quintilian contribute to the art of persuasion?
answer

He contributed influence on rhetoric Quintilian’s system of rhetorical education aimed at the creation of the ideal Roman orator: a virtuous, efficient, courageous, eloquent man.
question

What role did rhetoric play in education in the Middle Ages?
answer

Rhetoric’s role in education in the Middle Ages is known as one of the three great liberal arts.
question

The Renaissance gave birth to the Humanists and Rationalists. Can you describe the differences between the two and name two representatives from each and their contributions to persuasion?
answer

Humanistis- Interested in the human world as constructed through language, rather than the natural world, the Humanists focused on the human epistemologically. Rationalists- they were seen as having connection to science and truth
question

What is the “epistemological tradition” and who best represent this movement?
answer

create rhetorics based on an understanding of human nature Richard Whately
question

Where did ethics originate? How are ethics used in public speaking?
answer

Ethics originated in greece and rome builds credibility
question

What is plagiarism?
answer

Passing off another’s work as your own
question

What is the difference between global and patchwork plagiarism?
answer

global-speaker presents a speech that is not his or her own work. patchwork-“patches” together bits and pieces from one or more sources and represents the end result as his or her own
question

What is the difference between paraphrasing and directly quoting a source?
answer

paraphrase—a sentence or string of sentences that shares learned information in your own words direct quote- sentence or string of sentences that conveys an author’s idea word-for-word
question

What free speech rights are granted to a speaker?
answer

First amendment right
question

Why is raising social awareness an ethical concern when preparing a speech?
answer

Because the audience may not have the same stance on a topic as you and it will offend/alienate people
question

What are some ways to use language ethically in presentations?
answer

Use inclusive “we” language
question

How is ethical listening used in the public speaking setting?
answer

An ethical listener is one who actively interprets shared materials and analyzes the content
question

What are some guidelines for being an ethical listener?
answer

actively interprets shared material and analyzes the speech content and speaker’s effectiveness.
question

listening and hearing
answer

hearing is taking in sound where as listening is taking in sound and and distinguishing relevance
question

What are some benefits for you personally from effective listening?
answer

Personal- completing commnitcation loop professional- make a better impression on employers academic- retain more info. be more prepared for tests
question

Name and give an example of each of the three A’s of active listening
answer

attention, adjustment(be flexible with their direction) attitude
question

Identify the three main barriers to listening. Which of these barriers is most problematic for you? What can you do about it?
answer

Judgement, anticipating and emotionally reacting -anticipating i can think to myself to pay attention
question

What does an effective listener do with the extra thought process time while a speaker is speaking only 150 words-per-minute?
answer

They would take notes of main points
question

How can you communicate non-verbally that you are listening?
answer

listeners lean, eye contact or noding
question

What are some considerations in offering constructive feedback?
answer

Approach the speaker in a non threatening way and actively listen so you can make sugestions
question

What are strategies that help hold your listeners’ attention during your speech?
answer

Make topic relatable, cue listeners
question

What are the four basic functions of introductions, and why are these functions important?
answer

-Gain intrest -gain goodwill -state purpose -preview structure of speech
question

List and give one original example of each of the ten attention-getting devices
answer

Tell a story Refer to the occasion refer to recent or historical events refer to other speeches refer to personal intrest use startling statement use analogy use a quote ask a question use humor
question

What are three reasons why stories are effective as introductions?
answer

It has built in structure people understand creates shared experience has beginning middle and end
question

Why is humor both useful and dangerous at the same time?
answer

It can create a connection with audience or it can ruin their credibility
question

What is a preview statement, and why is it important as part of an introduction?
answer

It lets you know what the speech is going to be about
question

What are the four basic functions of conclusions, and why are these functions important?
answer

Prepare the audience for the end of your speech, summarize and close, end with a “clincher’
question

Compare and contrast an appeal and a challenge. When would you use each technique?
answer

Appeals are requests ie. ask yourself…. Challenges are more forceful ie. I dare you to…
question

What does it mean to “follow the structure” in a conclusion?
answer

Use quotes questions and shocking statements because they are proven to work
question

Why are introductions and conclusions prepared last?
answer

Its easier to captivate an audience after you have researched and have info for your paper
question

What percentage of the general population is likely dealing with CA?
answer

20% or more
question

What are some of the potential issues or problems that can result from CA?
answer

Decrease the audience engagement, leave negative disposition
question

What are some of the different ways researchers classify CA? What are the differences between these ideas?
answer

Trait Anxiety- anxiety alligned with the personality ie. shy state anxiety- derived from external situations ie. audience member making distracting noises scrutiny fear- fear of being watched ie. doesnt want to be center of attention
question

How does Cognitive Restructuring work? Does it work the same for every person who tries it?
answer

Internal process where you change the way an experience is perceived ie. if i mess up on my speech people will sympathize with me rather than make fun of me
question

What does it mean to become conversant in your topic?
answer

Conversant is some one who is ready to discuss the topic intelligently
question

Why is memorizing a presentation a risky move? Is there any part of your presentation that should be memorized?
answer

Because there is as risk of forgetting. Introduction should be memorized though
question

Know the four types of speeches and delivery options
answer

Descriptive – Explanatory- Definitional- Demonstration- manuscript, memorized, impromptu, extemporaneous
question

What three aspects of vocal delivery do you believe are most important to a speaker’s credibility? Explain.
answer

Inflection- Pace- Tone-
question

How might a speaker’s accent affect the audience’s perception of him or her? Illustrate your answer with an example.
answer

If the accent is too strong then audience wont understand him and he wont have the same credibility
question

List three methods you would personally use to reduce your anxiety before your speeches
answer

Breathe and release practice out loud Prepare well

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member