COM 115 – Quiz Answers

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Why is it important to balance free speech with ethical speech?
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You are allowed to say whatever you want but you need to make sure it is ethical and that it doesn’t insult anyone
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What is Slander
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False speech that harms someone
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Why are \”to inform\” and \”to persuade\” ethical goals while \”to coerce\” or \”to manipulate\” are unethical?
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Ethical goals make its goals clear to the audience and is socially responsible that gives the audience choices while unethical goals are socially irresponsible
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What requirements must be present for evidence and reasoning to be ethical?
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It needs to share with the audience all information that might help them make a sound decision
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What is accommodation
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Sensitivity to the feelings, needs, interests and backgrounds of other people
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Why is accommodation important?
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You want to show that you are able to listen to opposing viewpoints and learn about different beliefs and values. It shows them respect
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What kinds of statements might be considered dishonest?
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Plagiarizing and saying things that aren’t true
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What is plagiarism
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Presenting someone else’s words or ideas as though they were one’s own
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What are some examples of plagiarism?
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Using someone elses ideas without crediting the source
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What is plagiaphrasing
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Failing to give credit for compelling phrases taken from another source
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What types of information, ideas, ect should a speaker give credit for?
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direct quotation statistics opinions, ideas Any nonoriginal visual materials
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What is an oral citation
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The oral presentation of such information about a source as the author, title and year of publication
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Can you provide and example of an oral citation
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Before you state a quotation you should say the author and the date
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What is ethos
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The root word of ethic and ethical and it refers to a speaker’s credibility
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Why is ethos important?
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You want your audience to know that you are credible
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What are the main sources of supporting material?
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Personal knowledge and Experience The internet Online Databases Traditional Library Holdings Interviews
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What are the six criteria for evaluating a website
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Advocacy Commercial Information Personal Entertainment News
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How might the six criteria for evaluating a website be applied to various types of websites?
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The first four serve as guides for evaluating a resource
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How does a database differ from the internet at large, or from search engines?
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Databases are only used by patrons of libraries that subscribe to them
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What are some of the traditional holdings available in the library?
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books periodicals newspapers reference resources
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What are the steps in conducting research?
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Develop a preliminary bibliography locate resources Assess the useful resources take notes identify possible visual aids
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What are the types of supporting material one might use in a speech?
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Illustrations Descriptions Definitions Analogies Statistics Opinions
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What makes each type effective
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Illustrations can stir their emotions Explanations might help them understand the point statistics can convince them of the significance of a problem
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Description
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A word picture of something
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Explanation
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A statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present form or existed in its past form
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Definitions by Classification
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Dictionary Definition
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Operational Definition
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Explains how something works
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What are the two types of analogies
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Literal Analogy Figurative Analogy
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Literal Analogy
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A comparison between two similar things
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Figurative Analogy
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A comparison between two dissimilar things that share some common feature of which the comparison depends
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What are the guidelines for using statistics correctly in a speech?
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Accuracy Round the numbers reliable authoritative make the understandable use visuals to present them
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What are the three types of opinions
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Lay testimony Expert testimony Literary quotations
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How do you determine which supporting materials is best to use in your speech?
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Magnitude Proximity Concreteness variety humor suitability
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What pet peeves do teachers have about ineffective introductions and conclusions?
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Don’t start with OK Don’t start with \”Hello, my speech is on…\” Dont start by apologizing or making excuses for not being prepared saying \”in conclusion\” Don’t end in Thank You Don’t end in \” any questions?\”
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What are the main functions of an introduction
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Get the audiences attention Give them a reason to listen introduct the subject establish your credibility preview you main ideas
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What are the different ways to introduce a speech
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Quotes Illustrations statistics Humor questions references to historical or recent events personal references references to the occasion references to preceding speeches
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is it possible or wise to combine two or three of these methods
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yes
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What makes humor effective in an introduction
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it relaxes the audience and wins their goodwill for the rest of the speech
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What is rhetorical question
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a question that provokes thought and doesn’t need an answer
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What are the purposes of conclusions
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summarizes your speech gives a final impression and they are able to remember you better from your closing remarks
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How might a speaker provide closure to the speech
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use verbal and nonverbal clues to signal the end of the speech motivate the audience to respond
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What specific strategies are effective in conclusions
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The same as the introduction References your introduction inspirational appeals
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What are the differences between oral and written language styles
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oral is more personal oral is less formal oral is more repetitive
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Why are these differences important to a speech?
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Being more personal is good because you can make eye contact with the audience better When speaking, you tend to use smaller word structures When reading, if you don’t understand you can just reread but when listening to a speech, you cant do that so the speech has to be repetitive
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How can a speaker use words effectively for their audience
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Use specific, concrete words use simple words use words correctly use words concisely
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Connotation
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The meaning listeners associate with a word based on their experiences
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Denotation
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the literal meaning of the word
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Why might connotation and denotation matter in a speech?
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If you are giving you speech to a person to an audience that their first language isn’t English, they might not have a connotation definition for a word
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How does a speaker adapt their language style to their listeners
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Use language they can understand use appropriate language use unbiased language
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Ethnic vernacular
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a variety of English that includes words and phrases used by a specific ethnic group
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regionalism
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a word or phrase used uniquely by speakers in one part of a country
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Jargon
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the specialized language of a profession
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What is considered unbiased language
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anything that doesn’t contain sterotypes, discrimination or sexism
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How can a speaker create memorable word structures?
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creating figurative images creating drama creating cadence
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Figures of speech
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language that deviates from the ordinary, expected meaning of words to make a description r comparison unique, vivid and memorable
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What kinds of figures of speech might you use in a speech?
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metaphors similies personifications
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How can a speaker create drama in a speech?
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use short sentences to express a vitally important thought use omissions use inversions use suspension
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Omissions
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Leave out a word or phrase that the audience expects to hear
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Inversion
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Reverse the normal word order of a phrase or sentence
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Suspension
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Place a key word or phrase at the end of a sentence rather than at the beginning
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Cadence
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Rhythms and rhymes to help us remember
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What are the ways speakers might employ cadence in a speech
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repetition parallelism antithesis alliteration
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Parallelism
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The use of the same grammatical pattern for two or more phrases, clauses or sentences
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antithesis
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Opposition such as that used in two-part sentences in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first
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Alliteration
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the repetition of a consonant sound several times in a phrase, clause or sentence
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What tips does the book suggest for using these word structures effectively
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Use them in moderation Use them in specific points Use them to economize
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Why is effective delivery important
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delivery plays an important role in influencing how audiences react to a speaker and his or her message
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Nonverbal communication
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Communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning
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What does nonverbal communication mean in the context of a speech
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Eye contact posture facial expressions vocal quality
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Manuscript speaking
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Reading a speech from a written text
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Memorized speaking
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delivering a speech word for word from memory without using notes
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impromptu speaking
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delivering a speech without advance preparation
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Extemporaneous speaking
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speaking from a written or memorized speech outline without having memorized the exact wording of the speech
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What should an impromptu speaker do in order to be effective?
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consider your audience, be brief, organized, speak honestly, be cautious
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What are the stages of developing an extemporaneous speech?
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Early rehearsal: use notes to help ideas but as you practice use them less and less Later rehearsal: When you start to use the same words stop or try using other words Final rehearsal: revise speaking otes
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What type of speaking is expected in COM 115
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Extemporaneous
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What are the main characteristics of effective delivery and how are they executed correctly?
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eye contact: look at all the members of the audience, look front, back and side but don’t look over their heads Gestures: use them so they match your speech but don’t over do them Movement: move away from the lecture and towards you audience but don’t move too much Facial expressions: use them to match your speech but always remember to smile Vocals: Be loud enough to be heard but don’t shout Posture: stand straight Appearance: dress appropriately
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articulation
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the production of clear and distinct speech sounds
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dialect
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a consistent style of pronouncing words that is common to an ethnic group or geographic region
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pronounciation
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the use of sounds to form words clearly and accurately
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Pitch
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how high or low your voice is
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rate
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how fast or slow your voice is
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pauses
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little breaks inbetween your sentences
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How should a speaker adapt their delivery to different kinds of audiences
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consider who you are talking to
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What are some tips the book suggest for rehearsing a speech
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Time your speech prepare your notes rehearse speech standing up present to someone videotape your speech rehearse using all presentation aides final rehearsal should mimic your speaking conditions practice good delivery skills
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How does a speaker respond to questions
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Be prepared If you don’t know, admit it repeat the question to yourself address the audience not just the asker stay on message listen nonjudgmentally be brief indicate when Q and A is up
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persuasion
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process of changing or reinforcing a listener’s attitudes, beliefs, value or behaviors
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In what circumstances might a speaker want to reinforce rather than change beliefs, values or attitudes
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Attitude: A learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward something; reinforce their likes and dislikes Beliefs: a way we structure reality to accept something is true or false Value: an enduring concept of good and bad, right and wrong; its better to reinforce when its a very touchy subject
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Which of these is most stable; beliefs, values or attitudes
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Values
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Which are easiest to change; beliefs, values or attitudes?
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Beliefs
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What is the relationship between these three and behavior
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It seems that you would know by these three things but humans aren’t always consistent with how they act
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Ethos
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speaker’s credibility
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pathos
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appeals to human emotion
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logos
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logic-the formal system of using rules to reach a conclusion
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can you give an example of ethos, pathos and logos?
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Ethos: present info in a way that can be trusted Pathos: Use emotion-arousing stories and concrete examples Logos: Make rational arguments and support them with evidence
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ELM; Elaboration likelihood model
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Theory that people can be persuaded by logic, evidence and reasoning through a more peripheral route that may depend on the credibility of the speaker, the sheer number of arguments presented or emotional appeals
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What is direct route of persuasion?
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Elaborate and use logic, reasoning, arguments and evidence
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What is indirect route of persuasion?
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Delivery, appearance, and impression of how prepared you are
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How can a cognitive dissonance motivate listeners?
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Identify a problem or need that is inconsistent with their currently help beliefs or known information that creates discomfort
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What are some other ways to motivate listeners?
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Use listener’s needs, use positive motivations and use negative motivation
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How do listeners cope with dissonance
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may discredit the source, listeners may reinterpret the message, may seek new info, may stop listening
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What are Maslow’s level of motivational needs?
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Physiological needs Safety needs Social needs Self-esteem Self-actualiation
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How can a speaker motivate positively
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A speaker can emphasize positive value and emphasize benefits
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How can a speaker motivate negatively?
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Make a strong threat to a loved one
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What are the steps in developing a persuasive speech?
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Consider the audience select and narrow topic determine persuasive purpose develop central and main idea organize speech rehearse and deliver
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Social judgment theory
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a theory that categorizes listener responses to a persuasive message according to the latitude of acceptance, the latitude of rejects or the latitude of no commitment
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Proposition of fact
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focuses on whether something is true or false or whether it did or did not happen
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proposition of value
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calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something
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proposition of policy
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advocated change in policy, procedure or behavior
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credibility
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The quality of being trusted and believed in
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why is credibility important
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If your audience doesn’t find what you say credible then they are less likely to listen or believe what you are telling them
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What are the elements of credibility and what phases does a speaker’s credibility go through
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Competence, trustworthiness and dynamism Initial credibility: first impression derived credibility: opinion formed throughout speech terminal credibility: final impression listeners have
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Inductive reasoning
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reasoning that uses specific instances or examples to reach a general, probable conclusion
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Deductive reasoning
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reasoning that moves from general statement of principal to a specific, certain conclusion
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How can you test the validity of inductive reasoning?
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support the conclusion, typical, recent?
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reasoning by analogy
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comparing one thing, person or process to another to predict how something will perform and respond
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syllogism
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A three-part argument that consists of a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion
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What are the 3 parts to syllogism
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general statement specific statement about an example that is linked to the major premise logical outcome of a deductive argument
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Causal reasoning
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reasoning in which the relationship between two or more events leads you to conclude that one or more of the events cause the others
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What are the specific ways in which a speaker can adapt a culturally diverse audience
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reasoning, use appropriate evidence, use appropriate appeals to action, use appropriate message structure and use an appropriate delivery style
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What kinds of evidence might a speaker use?
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Facts, examples, opinions and statistics
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What are the criteria we can use to judge whether evidence is effective
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Bandwagon, Either/or, Ad hominem, causal, Hasty generalization, red herring, appeals to misplaced authority and non sequitur
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Fallacy
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false reasoning that occurs when someone attempt to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate
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What is the role of emotion in persuasion, and what specific strategies can a speaker use to employ emotion in persuasion
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Emotion is a powerful way to move an audience and support your persuasive purpose
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Non-sequitur
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An idea or conclusion that does not logically relate to or follow from the previous idea or conclusion
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What are some of the ethical concerns that might arise in the use of emotion
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Making false claims, misusing evidence to get emotional arousal or relying only on emotions without offering evidence to support it
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Receptive
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identify with your audience, clearly state speaking objective, tell your audience exactly what you want them to do, ask listeners for immediate show of support, use emotional appeals effectively
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Neutral
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capture listener’s attention early, refer to beliefs that many share, relate your topic to them, their family, ad their friends
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Unreceptive
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Dont announce immediately that you want to change their minds, begins by noting areas of agreement don’t expect a major shift from a hostile audience
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What are the main strategies for organizing persuasive speeches?
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Problem-solution refutation cause-and-effect the motivated squence

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