COM 101 Study Guide Exam 1

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Human Communication
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process of creating meaning through symbolic interaction
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Intrapersonal communication
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self-communicating based on how we process information; affects all other interactions
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Dyadic Communication
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between two people in person or thru forms of media
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Small Group Communication
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3-15 people where everyone can participate fully; majority members can conform others; creative
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Public Communication
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a group is too large for all members to participate, unequal amount of speaking
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Mass Communication
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messages to large, widespread audiences through media; controlled by ‘gatekeepers’
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Communication Satisfies What 4 Needs
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Physical Needs, Identity Needs, Social Needs, Practical Needs
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Linear Model
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sender encodes a message to a receiver who decodes; communication channel=means by way communication is conveyed
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Mediated Communication
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phone, email, voicemail (communication medium)
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Noise
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any forces that interfere with effective communication; external (physical), physiological (illness), psychological (exaggeration)
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Environments
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fields of experience that help communicators understand behaviors; include ethnicity, social class, hurried, experience, passion; differing environments make it hard to understand others
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Transactional Model
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simultaneous sending and receiving with discernible responses (feedback!); e.g. midterm examination; possible through all forms of media; impossible to identify sender/receiver; mutually enforcing cycle of influence
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Communication Competence
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effective communication involves achieving one’s goals in a manner that ideally maintains or enhances the relationship in which it occurs
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3 Things about Competence
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it’s situational, relational, can be learned
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7 Characteristics of Competent Communicators
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wide range of behaviors, ability to choose most approp behavior, skill at performing behaviors, empathy/perspective talking, cognitive complexity, self-monitoring, commitment to relationship
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Coordination
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situations where participants interact smoothly with satisfaction and without understanding
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Language
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collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals; meanings are in people, not in word
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Symbols
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arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator’s thoughts; the way one experiences the world
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Language Rules
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PHONOLOGICAL (pronunciation), SYNTACTIC (spelling), SEMANTIC (definition), PRAGMATIC (understanding)
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Ways that Language Shapes + Reflects Attitudes
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Naming, Credibility, Status, Sexism + Racism (generic he), power, affiliation
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Convergence
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adapting one’s speaking style to that of the societal norm
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Divergence
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speaking in a way that emphasizes their difference from others
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Equivocal Language
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words have more than one correct definition; equivocal misunderstandings can lead to serious consequences
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Relative Words
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gain meaning by comparison; depend on their meaning by what they’re compared to
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Slang and Jargon
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language used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar co-culture; regionalisms are terms understood by people who live in a certain geographic area
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Abstract Lang and Such
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speech that describes something vaguely; varying degrees of specificity; abstraction ladder=lower terms are more specific whereas higher terms are general
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3 Bad Habits of Disruptive Language
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Confusing Facts + Opinions, Confusing Facts + Inferences, Emotive Language (attitudes)
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Euphemism
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positive or better word used to replace a less pleasant one; many are not worth the effort to create them
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Equivocation
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a deliberately vague statement that can be interpreted in more ways than one (intentionally ambiguous)
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Different Verbal Communication Styles in Diff Countries
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Direct/Indirect; Elaborate/Succinct; Formal/Informal
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Linguistic Relativism
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the notion that worldview of a culture is shaped and reflected by the language its members speak
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Sapir- Whorf Hypothesis
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best declaration of linguistic relativism; Hopi culture – implications of linguistic difference can be profound
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Nonverbal Communication
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those behaviors other than words themselves that form a socially shared coding system
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Kinesics
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the norm, includes gestures, eye contact, and body position
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Emblems
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body movement that carry meaning in themselves; still convey clear message without verbal hints
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Illustrators
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body movements that help receivers interpret what’s being said, accompanied by speech(talking with hands)
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Regulators
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body movements that guide conversations (head nod during conversation)
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Adaptors
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body movements that help satisfy physical or psychological needs
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Affect Displays
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movements that express emotion without touch (facial expressions)
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Haptics
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refers to all aspects of touch; a critical part of our life with important developmental benefits
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Types of Haptics (Touch)
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functional/professional, social/polite, friendship, warmth, love/intimacy
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Proxemics
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the way we use space
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Physical Appearance
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the way we look including body type and attire (3 body types:Ectomorph – thin and lean, Mesomorph – strong and muscular, Endomorph – large and heavy-set) > attire key
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Vocalics
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voice – reflects aspects of vocal tone, such as pitch, loudness, accent, rate of speech, tone, amount of pauses; creates variety of emotions
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Chronemics
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use and perception of time, number of things we do at once: duration, punctuality, Polychronism-multitasking, Monochromism-single activity
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Artifacts
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physical attributes and environmental attributes that communicate directly, define the communication context, guide social behavior in some way
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6 Functions of Nonverbal Codes
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1. structuring and regulating interaction 2. creating and managing identities, impressions 3. communicating emotions 4. defining and managing relationships 5. inf others 6. deceiving others
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Viewing
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a multimodal activity that involves a set of relational social practices whether image is personal, context-specific, or public
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Interpellation
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interruption of a procedure in order to question someone or something formally > \”images interpellate humans\”
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Producer
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someone who oversees the job and who’s final product is represented in the outcome > authorship not just who created something but who has its rights (may not be just 1 person)
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Aesthetics
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appreciation of the beauty and value within something; assoc. with philosophy
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Taste
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informed by experiences relating to one’s class; culturally specific Notions for taste provide the basis for the idea of connoisseurship > not just opinion
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Habitus
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a set of dispositions we share and preferences we share that are related to our class, education, and social standing
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Hegemony
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emphasizes the power that is wielded by one class over another; enacted through the push and pull among the class levels
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Negotiation
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an interpretation can be negotiated from dominant meanings of an image > bargaining over meaning among viewer, image, context (ex. American Idol)
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Oppositional Reading
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taking a position against by disagreeing with ideological positions or rejecting it altogether
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Appropriation
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traditionally taking something for oneself without consent; borrowing and changing the meaning of items
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Reappropriation
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the cultural process by which a group reclaims—re-appropriates—terms or artifacts that were previously used in a way disparaging of that group
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Bricolage
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something that is made or put together with whatever materials happen to be available
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Counter-bricolage
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The practice used by advertisers and marketers of manufacturing to make aspects of bricolage widespread
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5 Attributes of Books
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fixity (static text), discreteness (text isolated), division of labor (author and reader perform diff tasks), primacy for creativity + originality, linearity
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8 Principles of Good Writing
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1. be brief 2. be precise 3. be active 4. be imaginative 5. be direct 6. be consistent 7. be aware (don’t plagiarize) 8. be concise

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