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Com (101) – Chapter 7

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Performance Anxiety
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is controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for his or her presentation.
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ice breaker speech
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a speech early in the term designed to get students speaking in front of the class as soon as possible
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introduction
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the opening section of a speech
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body
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the main section of a speech
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chronological order
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A method of speech organization where the main points follow a time pattern
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topical ordder
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Logical and consistent sequences
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main points
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the majors points of a speech
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transition
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Word or phrase that indicates when a speaker is finished
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conclusion
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The final section of a speech
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extemporaneous speech
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a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes
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Does Language mirror reality
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NO
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denotative meaning
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The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase
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connotative meaning
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the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase
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parallelism
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Phrases or sentences of a similar construction/meaning placed side by side, balancing each other
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antithesis
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A statement in which two opposing ideas are balanced
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inclusive language
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language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors
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The order
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specific purpose, central idea, main points, transition, conclusions
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What can you inform on
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Process Object Event Concept
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personalize
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To relate to the audience you should do this in your informative speech
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impersonal
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not influenced by personal feelings
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central idea
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The most important point the author makes
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residual message
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what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech
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catalogue
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a listing of all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library
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Call numbers
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A label or address assigned to each library item, presenting information to logically organize locate the item in the library stacks
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research summary
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a method for data collection
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It is important to know your main points before you begin researching your speech.
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False
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signpost
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a transition that indicates a key move in the speech, making its organization clear to the audience. etc “first” “next” “finally”
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causal order
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a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause-effect relationship
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connective
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provides support for the body and connects its parts.
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When selecting a title for your speech, you should avoid phrasing it as a question.
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False
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Even though a speaking outline should be kept as brief as possible, you should usually write out quotations in full. True
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True
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rhetorical question
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A question asked merely for rhetorical effect and not requiring an answer
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dissolve ending
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a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step by step to a dramatic final statement
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crescendo ending
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a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity
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What is a major factor to consider when deciding whether to use an object as a visual aid?
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its size
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Distributing handouts is usually an excellent way to present visual aids during a speech. True
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False
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Dolores is preparing visual aids for her speech about resources available to the Latino/Latina community and has decided to use a handout. When should she distribute it?
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After the speech
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When delivering a speech, you should display visual aids only while discussing them.
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True
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When preparing charts and graphs, you should use a large number of colors in order to grab your audience’s attention.
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True
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impromptu
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A(n) ____________ speech is delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
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Pitch
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How high or low a sound is speaking
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articulation
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the physical production of particular speech sounds in a clear format
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Conversational quality
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presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed
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True
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Good delivery does not call attention to itself
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Inflection
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Change in the tone of a speakers voice
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Articulation
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Structuring your speech carefully
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vocalized pause
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a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as “uh”, “er”, and “um”
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True/False: Listeners usually find generalizations more interesting and convincing than specific statements.
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false
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True/False: skillful use of supporting materials is closely related to critical thinking.
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true: Feedback: As you assess your supporting materials and decide which ones to use in your speech, you are using the same skills that are involved in critical thinking.
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The three kinds of supporting materials discussed in your textbook are
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statistics, examples, and testimony.
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A(n) ____________ is a specific case used to illustrate or represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like.
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example
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True/False: Examples are especially useful for getting listeners involved in a speech.
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true: Feedback: Because they can make ideas concrete and personal, examples are especially useful for getting listeners involved in a speech.
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True/False: A hypothetical example is an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation.
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True
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A(n) ____________ example is a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point.
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brief
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According to your textbook, a(n) ____________ example is a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point.
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extended
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True/False: You should usually avoid using detailed examples because they will bore your audience.
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False: Feedback: Because detailed examples are usually more vivid than brief examples, they are likely to be of more interest to your audience.
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True/False: The impact of an extended example often depends as much on the speaker’s delivery as on the content of the example.
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True: Feedback: Because an extended example is similar to a story, its impact can depend as much on the speaker’s delivery as on its content.
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The ____________ is the number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers.
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mode
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What is the median in the following set of numbers: 500, 600, 650, 700, 750?
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650
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The term for the statistical measure popularly known as the “average” is the ____________.
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mean
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True/False: the main purpose of using statistics in a speech is to make the speech more vivid.
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False: Feedback: The main value of using statistics in a speech is to quantify the speaker’s ideas; examples are used to make a speech more vivid.
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According to your textbook, if you quoted your sixteen-year-old niece on the impact of media violence on high-school students, you would be using ____________ testimony.
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peer
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Research indicates that the impact of examples is greatly enhanced when they are followed by ____________ that show the examples are typical.
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statistics
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True/False: In most cases, statistics speak for themselves and do not require a lot of explanation when used in a speech.
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False: Feedback: The meaning of statistics is not self-evident. To work effectively in a speech, they need to be clearly explained and related to the audience.
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When using statistics in a speech, you should (3 answers)
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A) round off complicated statistics. B) identify the sources of your statistics. C) use statistics sparingly.
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According to your textbook, what type of supporting material would you be using if you quoted Yale physicist Daniel Timbie on the compatibility of the big bang theory with religious philosophies?
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expert testimony
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To restate or summarize a source’s ideas in one’s own words is to
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paraphrase
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How does the following speech excerpt violate the guidelines for using statistics presented in your textbook? Restaurants are paying more for seafood and top cuts of beef. The price of king crab legs rose $7.07 in the past year, from $8.27 to $15.34. The cost of gulf shrimp rose $2.12, from $12.68 to $14.80. Likewise, the cost of a tenderloin filet rose $9.53, from $15.79 to $25.32. And the cost of a rib eye steak rose $1.94, from $4.16 to $6.10.
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This statement drowns listeners in a sea of numbers. Using fewer statistics would be more effective–as would rounding off the price increases rather than citing the exact amounts. Moreover, the source of the statistics is not identified.
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How does the following speech excerpt violate the guidelines for using supporting materials presented in your textbook? According to a study just released by General Motors, the safety record of automobiles manufactured in the United States is better than it has ever been. As General Motors states, “It’s just not fair to say that automakers are not concerned about safety.”
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General Motors can hardly be considered an objective source on the safety record of the U.S. automobile industry. It may be true that cars made in the United States are safer than ever, but the statement would carry a lot more weight if it came from an impartial, objective source.
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Identify the four major guidelines discussed in your textbook for using testimony in a speech.
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-Quote or paraphrase accurately. -Use testimony from qualified sources. -Use testimony from unbiased sources. -Identify the people you quote or paraphrase.
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What are the six tips discussed in your textbook for using statistics?
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-Use statistics to quantify your ideas. -Use statistics sparingly. -Identify the sources of your statistics. -Explain your statistics. -Round off complicated statistics. -Use visual aids to clarify statistical trends.
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define supporting materials and three major examples
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the materials used to support a speaker’s ideas. the three major kinds are examples, statistics, and testimony
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define example
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a specific case used to illustrate or to represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like
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define brief example
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a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
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define extended example
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a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point
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define hypothetical example
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an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
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define statistics
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numerical data
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define mean
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the average value of a group of numbers
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define median
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the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest
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define mode
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the number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers
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define testimony
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quotations or paraphrases used to support a point
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define expert testimony
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testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields
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define peer testimony
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testimony from ordinary people with first-hand experience or insight on a topic
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define direct quotation
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testimony that is presented word for word
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define paraphrase
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to restate or summarize an author’s ideas in one’s own words
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define quoting out of context
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quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it