College Physics 1 Final Tiffany Hanchett
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Vector

A quantity with both magnitude and direction
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Scalar

A physical quantity that has magnitude only.
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Mechanics

Branch of physics regarding interactions between objects and their impact on object’s motion
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Force

A push of pull that has the capacity to change the (translational) motion of the object acted upon.
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System

collection of objects under consideration
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Internal Forces

forces between objects in system
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External Forces

forces between system & objects outside the system
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Kinematics

the study of describing motion
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position

r (vector); vector that indicates the location of an object with respect to a specified origin
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displacement

Distance and direction of an object’s change in position from the starting point. (Origin Independent)
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distance

length of path traveled (scalar)
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speed

Distance traveled per unit time.
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velocity

Time rate change of position
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acceleration

Time rate change of velocity
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inertia

resistance to change in motion
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mass

a. A measure of inertia. b. Source of gravity c. Strength of interaction with \”Higgs Field\”
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Newton’s First Law

An object will maintain it’s motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced outside force.
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Newton’s Second Law

Sum of the forces = mass x acceleration
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Newton’s Third Law

An object cannot exert a force on something without the second object exerting an equal in magnitude and opposite in direction force on the first object.
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Free Fall

a = g = -9.8m/s^2
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Projectile Motion

Type of free fall. Only force is gravity. Has an initial horizontal velocity.
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Apparent Weight

the force experienced by an object, resulting from all the forces acting on it, giving the object an acceleration. This is the Force Normal.
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Orbit

Type of free fall where apparent weight is 0 \”weightlessness\”
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Angle

Theta (vector)
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Angular Displacement

Change in Theta (vector)
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Angular Velocity

Omega (Vector)
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Angular Acceleration

The rate of change of angular velocity. Alpha
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Arclength

S
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Tangential Velocity

The speed of an object at a point as it moves around the circumference of a circle. Vtan (vector)
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Tangential Acceleration

ATan (vector) Can only change magnitude of velocity Always parallel to velocity
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Centripetal Acceleration

Acceleration of an object toward the center of a curved or circular path. Can only change direction of velocity Always perpendicular to velocity
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Rotation

Axis of rotation within the object
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Revolution

Axis of rotation outside of object
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Period

Line per Cycle T
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Frequency

Cycles per Time 1/t=f
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Work

Force x Distance W (sum of F)(Xcos(theta))
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Kinetic Energy

Energy in Motion
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Translational Energy

All parts move at same velocity Particles have only this
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Rotational Energy

Ex: Spinning/Orbiting
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Vibrational Energy

Ex: Oscillation
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E=MC^2

Equation for the potential energy in mass
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Mass Defect

Change in mass
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Momentum

Mass x Velocity P (vector)
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Impulse

Change in momentum (vector)
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Perfectly Inelastic Collision

A collision in which two objects stick together after colliding
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Perfectly Elastic Collision

A collision in which two objects perfectly deflect after colliding
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Center of Mass

Average location of the mass of an object where the point mass is considered to be.
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Centroid

Geometric center of an object (Same as Center of mass if object has uniform density)
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Center of Gravity

Average location of where gravity acts on an object. (If gravitational field is uniform, it will be the center of mass.)
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Rotational Inertia

I
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Torque

Tau A twist of turn that one object exerts on another that has the ability to change the rotational motion of the object. Unit is the N x M
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Lever Arm

Distance from axis of rotation to the spot where force is applied
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Solid

Rigid, roughly maintains volume & shape
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Liquid

Roughly maintains volume
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Gas

Maintains neither volume nor shape
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Vapor

Droplets of liquid acting like a gas
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Fluid

Does not maintain shape (Flows)
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Critical Point

Cannot discern the differences between states
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Ideal Fluid

Flows without turbulence of viscosity and cannot change volume
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Ideal Liquid

Fluid with a constant volume (incompressible fluid)
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Pascal’s Principle

Within a static incompressible fluid, any change in pressure is the same throughout the fluid. Ex: Hydraulic Lift
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Density

Volumetric Mass ρ=m/v Units: Kg/M^3
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Pressure

Force per unit area. P
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Barometer

Measures Pressure
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Absolute Pressure

Pressure measured against a vacuum
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Gauge Pressure

Pressure measured against the atmosphere ex: Blood pressure cuff
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Laminar Flow

All particles follow the same path Also known as Streamline
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Turbulent Flow

Particles move randomly
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Viscosity

Resistance to flow
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Waves

Are a form of energy transport
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Oscillation

Back and forth in motion
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Wave Pulse

Single Disturbance
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Periodic Wave

Repeated Disturbance
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Transverse Waves

Disturbance is perpendicular to wave propagation Travel on surface of fluid, but not through fluid Ex: Light/Electromagnetic Wave
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Longitudinal Waves

Disturbance is parallel to wave propagation Can travel through fluids Ex: Sound Waves
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Intensity

Power/Area. I
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Linear Mass Density

mass/length Mu
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Wavelength

Lambda Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
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Amplitude

The maximum displacement of a periodic wave A
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Refraction

Bending of light when waves go from one medium to another.
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Diffraction

Bending of waves around obstacles
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Node

Part of wave that does not move
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Antinode