Cognitive Psychology Chapter 1 – 3

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Mind
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Creates and controls mental functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, problem solving. Include “hidden” processes that we may not be aware of.
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Cognitive psychology
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Branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of the mind. Too hard to measure. Results vary too much.
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Donder
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1st cognitive psychologist. Reaction time – measures the interval between stimulus presentation and the persons response to it.
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Simple reaction time
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Push 1 button when see light
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Choice reaction time
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Push button left or right depending on light
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Structerialism
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Perception is the adding up of small elementary units called sensations
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Wundt’s experiment
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Structuralism
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Ebbinghaus
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Memory experiment. How long does it take to remember something then forget it and remember it again.
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John watson
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Analytical introspection. Trained subjects described experiences and thoughts by response to stimuli
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Behavioralism
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John Watson. States the observable behavior provides data for psychology.
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William james
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Principles of psychology. Only did observation of his own mind
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Classical conditioning
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John Watson & Rayner. Little Albert. Conditioned baby to be afraid of rat by conditioning with loud noise. Pavlov’s dog, food, bell experiment
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Skinners operant conditioning
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Behavior is strengthened by positive reinforcement. Rat pressing bar did it more when positively reinforced with food. Argued children learn language via operant conditioning
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Edward tolman
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Behaviorist but actually early cognitive psych. Cognitive map
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Cognitive map
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A conception of the layout of something in the mind.
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Chomsky
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Cognitive psych reimerges. Children don’t learn language by operant rather a biological inborn program
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Cognitive revolution
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Shift from behavior a lists stimulus response relationship to an approach that attempts to explain behavior from a mind perspective.
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Information processing approach
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A way to study the mind from insights associated with a digital computer
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Cherry
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Dichotic listening. When listening to sounds only remember sound focused on. Other message couldn’t be recalled
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Broadbent
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Flow diagram for the computer like the memory process. Info not focused on doesn’t go through filter so not remembered. Input-filter-detector-to memory
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Artificial intelligenceinformation theory
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Making a machine behave as if intelligent human
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Newell & simon
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Logic theorist program. Trying to give a computer the ability to problem solve.
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Modern research in cog psych
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Start with problem (something known) then ask questions, design experiments, get and read results, use findings to create new questions
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Structural models
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Used to illustrate locations of different structures of the brain. Mimic form or appearance of an object.
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Process models
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Illustrates how a process works. With boxes and arrows pointing in direction of flow.
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Sensory memory
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Holds info for fraction of a sec then passes it to short term memory
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Short term memory
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Has limited amount of space holds for a few seconds then either goes to Kong term memory or gets dumped
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Long term memory
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A high capacity system that can hold info for a long period of time.
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Episodic memory
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Recalls events of life
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Semantic memory
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Memory of facts. Remembering who the presidents are.
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Cognitive neuroscience
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Study of psychological basis of cognition. Involves understanding the nervous system and the individual units that use the system
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Level of analysis
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We look at things from different points of views each view point adds small amounts of info leading to a greater understanding
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Neurons
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Cells specialized to create, receive, and transmit info in the nervous system
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Nerve nets
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Interconnections of neurons a continuous network. Holds pathway to send signals through the brain. Nonstop
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Ramon y cajal
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Contradicted nerve net “neuron doctrine” not continuous. Studied brain with Golgi stain on newborn animals
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Cell body
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Metabolic center of neuron contains mechanisms that keep it alive
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Dendrites
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Extends out from cell body receives signals from other neurons
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Axon
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Nerve fibers. Long processes that transmit signals to other neurons
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Action potential
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Electrical potential travels down axon. Carries info from 1 neuron to the other
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Microelectrodes
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Used to measure electric signal active for 1 second placed near axon
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Synapse
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Space between axon of neuron and dendrite of another opens releasing neurotransmitters
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Neurotransmitters
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Crosses the synapses chemicals that affect the electrical signal of receiving neuron.
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Neuroreceptors
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Ear, eyes, skin. Pick up info from the environment
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Idea of representation
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Understanding cognition in our mind of experiences by measuring behavior and brain
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Principle of neural representation
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Everything a person experiences is based on direct contact with a stimuli
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Hubel & weisel
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Neurons in the visual cortex receive stimuli first then to brain. Neurons in visual cortex respond to only specific types of stimuli
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Feature detectors
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Neurons that respond to spoercific visual features. Orientation, size, environment
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Hierarchacil processing
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Perception goes from lower to higher levels of the brain. From simple to complex. Sensations combine to make a better understanding of what is being looked at.
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Specificity coding
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Representation specific stimuli by firing conditioned neurons specialized to respond to just those specific stimuli.
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Population coding
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Representation of a particular object by firing a large number of neurons
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Sparse coding
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Particular object I’d represented by a pattern of a small group off neurons others remain silent
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Localization of function
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Location of specific functions In a specific part of the brain.
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Cerebral cortex
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3mm thick contains mechanisms responsible for most cognitive functions
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Localization for language
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Brocas area – frontal lobe. Specializes in speech. Condition Broca’s aphasia. Unable to speak
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Wernicke’s area
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Temporal lobe, speech was there and correct just incoherent. Wernickes aphasia speech not comprehendible
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Event related potential
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Reflects the response of thousands of neurons that fire together
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Lobes of the cerebral cortex
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Temperal. Occipital. Parietal. Frontal.
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Temporal lobe
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Near eye. Auditory hearing.
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Occipital lobe
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Back of head. Visual cortex. Blindness
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Parietal lobe
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Top of brain. Somatosensory cortex. Signals from skin. Pressure. Touch. Pain
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Frontal lobe
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Forehead. All senses. Coordination. Critical thinking. Problem solving. Decision making.
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Localization of perception
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Occipital – vision. Parietal – sensory touch pain pressure. Temporal – hearing
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Coordination of all senses
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Frontal lobe probel solving. Decision making. Coordination
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Prosopagnosia
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Inability to brecogniuze faces
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MRI/fmri
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Magnetic resonance imaging. Creates images of structures of the brain/functional mri active cognition activate diff areas of the brain
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Fusiform face area FFA
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in fusiform gyrus underside of temporal lobe. Not recognize faces if damaged
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Parahippocampal place area PPA
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activated by pictures of indoor outdoor scenes only
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Extrastraite body area EBA
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Activated by pics of bodies and parts of bodies but not faces
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Distributed processing in brain
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Specific functions are processed by many different areas of the brain. Many areas contain same function. May contradict each other usually comp!iments though. Ex: 1 area recognizes face other recognizes expression.
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Neural networks
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Groups of neurons or structures connected. Detected by diffusion tensor imaging
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Diffusion tensor imaging
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Detection of how water diffuses along the length of the nerve fiber
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Pain matrix
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# of connected neurons that are involvd d in the perception of pain.
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Voxels
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Cubed areas of the brain 2-3 mm small units of 3d analysis. Not brain structures
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Nature of perception
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Experiences resulting from stimulation of the senses. How we deal with and interpret the world
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Basic concepts of nature of perception
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Can be changed as info is added. Clearer it gets ckloser you get. Occurs in conjunction with actions (good interpretations). Different experiences in people result in different understanding. Computers cannot handle perceptual experiences
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Inverse projection problem
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Determining the object responsible for the image on the retina. Starts with dentinal image then goes outward to the source of the image
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Viewpoint variance
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Ability to recognize an object seen from a different angle
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Bottom up processing. Direct perception theories
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Perception comes from stimuli in the environment. Pieces are put together till id. Starts with stimulation. Raw incoming data. Energy resting on rfeceptors
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Top down processing. Constructive perception theories
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Perception starts with brain (recalling an image) combined with a persons knowledge. Experience and expectations. Ability to understand certain words of other languages./
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Speech segmentation
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Ability to tell when 1 word ends and another begins
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Nociceptors
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Receptors of the skin
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Hemhooltz theory of uncouncious inference
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Perceptions are based on unconcuous assumptions we make about the envirnmnet
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Likelihood principles
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We perceive an object as to what most likely caused the pattern of the received stimuli.
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Gestalts principles of organization
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Structuralism – perceptions involves adding up sensations. New – the mind groups patterns according to laws of perceptual organization.
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Law of continuation
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Something is connected its smooth and straight. No ends
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Law of pragnanz/law if simplicity
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Images are seen at the simplistic level possible. Law of good figure
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Law of similarity
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Things that look similar are grouped together
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Gestalts laws are intrinsic
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Perception is determined by specific organizing principles
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Pyshical regularities
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We see horizontal and verticle better than oblique
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Oblique affect
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We see horizontal and verticle better
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Semantic regularities
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The meaning of a scene is related to what’s happening within the scene…these are the characteristics associated with the functions carried out in different types of scenes.
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Scene schema
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Knowledge of what a given scene normally contains. Office – desk. Computer. Chair. Printer.
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Bayesian inference
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Our estimate of the probability of a given outcome is influenced by 2 things. The prior probability and the likelihood of an outcome. (Prior knowledge)+(likelihood)=probable outcome
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Experiences dependent plasticity
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Mechanism that causes an organisms neurons to develop so they respond better to the type of simulation they were exposed to.
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Theory of natural selection
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Characteristics that enhance an animals ability to survive and reproduce. Info passes on down generations
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What stream
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Neural pavocellular pathway from the striate cortex to the temporal lobe identifying an object
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Where stream
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Mangocellular Pathway from striate cortex to parietal lobe identifying an objects location.
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Brain ablation
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Removing part of the brain
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Object discrimination problem
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Difficulty identifying the target shape after being shown the target plus a distractor
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Landmark discrimination
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Inability to identify where an object is based about the type of structure it needs to be hidden.

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