COA exam study (JCAHPO)

levator palpebrae superioris
Muscle that elevates the lid

Sclera
white opaque fibrous shell, main purpose is to protect eye

Cornea
A transparent convex covering which protects the eye and helps focus light rays onto the retina and the back of the eye

meibomian glands
The largest oil-secreting glands, which are embedded in the posterior connective tissue substance of the lids

Corneal Epithelium
Part of the cornea that is usually injured by superficial abrasions or small foreign bodies. Is 5-7 cells thick and is composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous cells.

Corneal Epithelium
Part of the cornea that regenerates rapidly and heals without leaving a scar.

Bowman’s membrane
Consists of randomly oriented collagen fibrils of greater periodicity then the underlaying stroma.

Bowman’s membrane

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col-md-5 col-lg-5">Acellular layer of cornea that has no regenerative capabilities. Function is unclear.

Stroma
Layer just under Bowman’s membrane. Accounts for 90% of corneal thickness and is composed of 78% water.

Descemet’s membrane
Layer of the cornea that is composed of type III collagen, forms the basement membrane of epithelial cells.

Endothelium
4-6um thick layer of the cornea made of 500,000 cells that maintains corneal deturgescence. No regenerative abilities.

Limbus
The gray, semitransparent area which demarcates the junction of the cornea and sclera.

Cornea is completely nourished by
3 sources: A plexus of fine capillaries at the limbus, the tear film, and the aqueous humor.

Vitreous
jelly like structure, thick and viscous, that occupies the vitreous chamber in the posterior concavity of the globe.

Lens
A transparent biconvex structure situated between the iris and the vitreous.

Iris
The most anterior structure of the uveal tract.

Uveal tract
Consists of three structures: iris, ciliary body, and choroid.

Retina
The innermost coat of the eye, formed of sensitive nerve elements and connected to the optic nerve.

A-scan
An ultrasound technique to determine the axial length of the eye to calculate the intraocular lens power required.

Abbe number
An indication of optical quality. Number is inversely proportional to the chromic dispersion of a specific lens material

Abduct
to turn away from the midline

Abductor
A muscle that rotates the eye away from the midline (e.g. lateral rectus)

Aberrant
Turning away from the midline

Ablation
The removal of tissue as occurs with the excimer laser on the cornea for refractive changes.

Abrasion
Rubbing off of the superficial layer

Abcess
Localized area of inflammation

AC/A
Accommodative convergence/accommodation ration; expressed as the ratio between convergence caused by accommodation (in prism diopters) and accommodation (in diopters).

Accommodation
Adjustment by the eye for seeing at different distances, accomplished by changing the shape of the crystalline lens through the action of the ciliary muscle.

Achloropsia
Color blindness to green

Achromatic lens
A lens that neutralizes dispersion without interfering with refraction.

Acuity
Clearness; visual acuity is measured by the smallest object that can be seen at a certain distance.

Add
The total dioptric power added to a distance prescription to supplement accommodation for reading.

Adductor
A muscle that exerts force towards the midline.

Adie’s pupil
A tonic pupil with sluggish response to lights, accommodation, and convergence.

Adnexa oculi
Accessory structures of the eye, such as the lacrimal apparatus and the eyelids.

Alexia
Inability to read words previously known even though visual perception is clear.

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