Clinical Neuroscience Quiz 3

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Inactivation (4 ways)
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1. Diffusion away from synapse 2. Degredagion in synaptic cleft 3. Reuptake into axon terminal 4. Uptake by glial cells
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Synthesis
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Formation of a particular neurochemical; Precursor-amino acids Via enzymes
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Deactivating Enzymes
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Enzymes that alters the formation of a certain neurochemical that is activating a receptor so that the activation is terminated and the cell can regain homeostatic levels of activity to respond to the next important ligand
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Reuptake
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Reabsorption of a neurochemical that is activating a receptor into the cell that secreted it, usually so that it can be repackaged and used again
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Ligand
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Known as lock and key; Substance that binds to a postsynaptic receptor or an ion channel (transmitter, hormone, or drug)
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Agonist
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Drug that attaches to a certain neurochemical receptor and mimics or modulates the activity of the endogenous neurochemical (Ex: morphine)
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Antagonist
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Drug that attaches to a certain neurochemical receptor and blocks or hinders the action of the endogenous neurochemical (Ex: clozapine)
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Receptors
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Binding location for neurochemicals so that they can exert their effect on specific neurons; most are specific, genetically encoded, specialized proteins
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Types of Receptors
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Ionotropic, metabotropic and autoreceptors
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Psychoactive/psychotropic Drugs
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Any substance that changes brain function and results in altered perception, mood, behavor, or consciousness
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Antidepressants SSRIs
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block reuptake of serotonin
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MAOIs
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prevent neurotransmitter inactivation
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Response
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The primary ligand activates a receptor; an agonist will also activate the receptor
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No response
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An antagonist will block receptor activity
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Presynaptic inhibition
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decreases the release of transmitter
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presynaptic excitation
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increases the release of transmitter
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autoreceptors
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sense the amount of transmitter in the cleft and cause the presynaptic neuron to reduce excessive output
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glial cells
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-prevent transmitter from spreading to other synapses -absorb and recycle transmitter for the neuron’s reuse -release glutamate to regulate presynaptic transmitter release
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Neurons can release more than one chemical
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-One that is fast acting, plus one or more slower acting neuropeptides -Two or more fast acting transmitters – excitatory and inhibitory transmitters at different synapses
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Excitatory & Inhibitory transmitters
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their function depends on the type of receptor they bind to (ex: serotonin)
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Dale’s Principle
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Neurons can only release one neurotransmitter
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Neurohormones
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brain substances that act like hormones and are released by neurons into the circulatory system (ex: oxytocin)
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Neuropeptides
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Proteins that are released by neurons and act as intercellular messengers
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Neuromodulator
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a substance that modifies or regulates the effect of a neurotransmitter (ex: serotonin
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Endogenous
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Neuropeptides, neurohormones and neuromodulators
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Exogenous
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Drugs (ritaliin, oxy, heroin, caffeine)
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Modulation or disruption of neural transmission
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-issues with initial synthesis -excessive degredation by enzyme -altered process of reuptake -receptors up or down-regulated
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Affinity
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strength of attraction: how strong the receptor and drug are attracted to each other Ex( reversible vs irreversible antagonists)
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Efficacy
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capacity to produce desired effect-how much response is produced by the drug-receptor interaction (complete vs partial agonists)
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Potency
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Amount of drug is required to produce a certain magnitude of a response
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Methods of administration
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-IV -Injection -Nasal -Smoking -Oral -Topical
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Therapeutic index
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measure of safety/toxicity of drug
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Bioavailability
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portion of total amount of drug that can be used or is available in the bloodstream
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Age considerations
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Geriatrics: slower metabolism Children: higher metabolism rate; smaller area to distribute drug over
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Categories of drugs
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-antipsychotics -antimanics -antidepressants -antianxiety
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Pharmacological effect
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desired therapeutic effect
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Side effects
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typically considered to be undesirable;occasionally used to benefit patient
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Idiosyncratic effects
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extremely rare, adverse effects that are difficult to predict
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allergic reactions
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immune response to medications
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discontinuance syndrome
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response to stopping or interrupting medication treatment
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Factors that affect adherence:
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-patient -provider -resource -medication
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Acetylcholine
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Sensory functions, memory
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Serotonin
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mood, appetite, sleep, emotional and pain processing
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Dopamine
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Movement, olfaction, reinforcement, concentration
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Norepinephrine
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CNS sensory processing, learning anxiety
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GABA
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Inhibitory neurotransmitter in CNS
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Glutamate
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Excitatory function in CNS & PNS, long term memory
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Catecholamines
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dopamine, norepinephrine/epinephrine, serotonin
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Disruptions to DA circuits
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Too much=psychosis Too little=Parkinson’s
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The 6 dimensions of wellness
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-Occupational -Physical -Social -Intellectual -Spiritual -Emotional
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Criticisms of Social Readjustment Rating Scale
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-Assumes given event is equally stressful for everyone -data is correlational -males & females cope with stress differently
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Purpose of stress
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-body’s natural defense mechanism -helps mobilize recourses to adapt or face stressors
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Extreme Negative Stress Traumas
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-War -natural disasters -crimes
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Chronic Stressors
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-chronic illness -financial stress -marital problems -academic pressure
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Everyday Stress
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-running late -poor sleep -losing things
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Positive Stress
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-job promotion -having a child -taking a vacay -holidays
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Locus Coeruleus
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mediates sympathetic response to stress
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HPA Axis
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Hormonal pathway of stress in the body
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General Adaptation Syndrome
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Predictable patterns in our physiological response to stress
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Stress phases
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-Good Health (homeostasis) -alarm stage -resistance stage -exhaustion stage
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Physiological Responses to stress
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-ulcers -impaired immune function -cardiovascular disease -kills brain cells -weight gain
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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
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Exposure to actual or threatened death or serious injury
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Ways to reduce stress
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-exercise -meditation -healthy eating -time management -sunlight exposure
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Coping
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Persistent response strategy in the presence of stressful stimuli

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