Change of State
-no change in bonding
-solid to liquid to gas, etc
(ice melts, liquid boils)
Bond formation releases/takes energy?
Bond formation = releases energy
Law of Mass Conservation
In a chemical process, mass is neither created nor destroyed
(mass of reactants = mass of products)
Chemical Change
-bonds are broken & rearranged
-molecular idenity is changed
(Na+CL -> NaCl)
Bond breaking releases/takes energy?
Bond breaking = takes energy
Exothermic reaction
releases energy into the environment
Reaction takes in energy from the environment
The ability of an atom to pull electrons from other atoms.
Covalent Bond
equal share of electrons
Polar Covalent Bond
-unequal sharing of electrons
-when atoms that differ significantly in electronegativity share electrons
Ionic Bond
an electron is transferred (electric force of attraction between two oppositely charged ions)
-formed between non-metallic & metallic elements
Dipole Moment
a measure of the polarity in a chemical bond or molecule, equal to the product of one charge and the distance between the charges
Polar Bond/Polar molecule
a chemical bond or molecule that has a dipole
For molecules w. B, Si, Ge, & C as the central atom:
-if atoms bonded to central atom are identical = non-polar
-if bonded atoms are not identical & at least one is from group 15,16, or 17 = polar molecule
For neutral molecules w. N, P, As, O, S, & Se as central atom:
Polar molecules
Avogadro’s Constant
Molar Mass
Positive Entropy Change
-going from a solid or liquid or gaseous product
-increase # of product molecules vs. # of reactant molecules
Negative Entropy Change
-going from a liquid or gas to a solid product
-decrease in # of product molecules
What accepts protons?
What donates protons?
Amphoteric Substance
substance whose ability to act as an acid is about the same as it’s ability to act as a base
EX = water
Neralization Reaction
the reaction between an acid & base
-strong acid + weak base
-weak acid + strong base
What is the oxidation state of S in Na2SO4?
A structurally differentiated form of an element
simplest organic compound (contains only hydrogen & carbon)
specific way in which the atoms of a molecule are connected to each other
(configuration = connection)
same connectivity, but bonds have been rotated
Hydrocarbon Functional Group
Methyl, Ethyl, Propyl, & Butyl
Monomer & Polymer
monomers join together to form a polymer
Addition polymerization
-monomers have double bond
-formula mass = sum of monomers
-name often ends in -ene (indicating presence of double bond in monomer)
Condensation polymerization
-monomer unit join there is a loss of a small molecule (often water)
-formula mass = less than sum of monomers
-name of polymer often gives a clue that is formed by a condensation reaction
disulfide cross-links, stretched w. great tendency to snap back
Heteroatom Functional Groups
=combo of atoms that behave as a singl unit containing at least one atom that is not C or H
-add mass
-create polar bonds
-provide sites for intermolecular interation (hydrogen bonding & reaction)
-body converts carbs into glucose
=polymers of sugars (glucose)
-main energy source
-excess is stored as glycogen
Carbohydrate Metabolism
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation, breakdown and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
Glycemic Index
1.A system that ranks foods on a scale from 1 to 100 based on their effect on blood-sugar levels
-HI GI = break down carbs fast
-LOW GI = break down carbs & release glucose into bloodstream slowly
=fatty acids w/trans double bonds
-not recognized b normal processing mechanisms in body
-remain in bloodstream longer
-more prone to arterial deposit
Fat Metabolism
a metabolic process that breaks down ingested fats into fatty acids and glycerol and then into simpler compounds that can be used by cells of the body
Low-Density Lipoproteins
“bad cholesterol”
-forms plaque & gets clots
High-Density Lipoproteins
“good cholesterol”
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
-protective of heart health
-impede VLSL sythnethis in liver
-render LDL particles larger and less sticky
-stabilize plaue formations
Problem w/ Partially-Hydrogenated Oils
carbon-carbon double bonds rearrange into “trans” form
amino acids linked together in a chain forming a protein
Restriction Enzyme
can cut both strands of DNA
Genetic Engineering
-production of human proteins in bacteria
In future: treatment for cancer & diseases, trasnplants & graphs from genetically motified animals, help agriculture by shortening time to evolve improved traits, improve productivity & cut time
Polymers of Amindo Acids
Proteins, Enzymes, & Hormones
Scientific Method
Observations, Questions, Hypothesis, Predictions, Tests
Scienfitic Law
Concise summary of data, generalizes specific observations
Sceintific Theory
Explanation of why a Law exists
Confidence grows
based on consistency of observations made by independent groups
Diatomic Molecules
structural isomer
same molecular formula, different structures
hydrocarbons come from
fossil fuels
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