Chemistry : Introduction

 Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
Chemistry

the study of the compostion of matter and the changes that matter undergoes


Because living and nonliving things are made of matter, chemistry affects all aspects of life and most natural events. 

Five Traditional areas of study
organic, inorganic, biochemistry, analytical, and physical
Carbon
Most of the chemicals found in organisms contain carbon
Organic chemistry
the study of all chemicals containing carbon
inorganic chemistry
the study of chemicals that, in general, do not contain carbon.
Biochemistry
the study of processes that take place in organisms
analytical chemistry

area of study that focuses on the composition of matter

-measuring the level of lead in drinking water

Physical chemistry
the area that deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the engery transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
The boundaries between teh five areas are not…

firm.

A chemist is likely to be working in more than one area of chemistry to determine the composition of an organic chemical.

Pure Chemistry
the pursit of chemical knowledge for its own sake. The chemist doesn’t expect that there will be any immediate practical use for the knowledge.
Applied chemistry

Research that is directed toward a practical goal or application.

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In practice, pure chemistry and applied chemistry are often linked.

Pure research can lead directly to
an application, but an application can exist before research is done to explain how it works.
Nylon

Pure chemistry; Hermann Staudinger, a; German chemist, proposed that these materials contained small units joined together like links in a chain.

Aspirin

By 1950, some doctors began to recommend a low daily dose or aspirin for patients who were at risk for a heart attack. Many heart attacks occur when blood clots block the flow of blood through arteries in the heart. Some researcher suspected that aspirin could keep blood clots from forming.

Technology
means by which a society provides its member with those things needed and desired.
Chemistry can have an impact on all aspects of your life.
Chemistry can be useful in explaining the natural world, preparing people for career opportunites, and producing informed citizens.
Cemists design materials to…
fit specific needs
Mascroscopic
the world of objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye
Microscopic
the world of objects that can be seen only under magnification
Energy
necessary to meet the needs of a modern society.
Chemists play an essential role
in finding ways to conserve energy, produce energy, and store energy.
Conservation

one of the easiest ways to conserve energy is through the use of insulation. Insulation acts as a barrier to heat flow from the inside to the outside of a house or from the outside to the inside of a freezer.

Production
the burning of coal, petroleum, and natural gas is a major source of energy.
Storage
Batteries are devices taht use chemicals to store energy that will be relased as electric current when teh batteries are used. batteries vary in size, power, and hours of useful operation.
Chemistry supplies that medicines, materials, and technology that
doctors use to treat their patients
Medicines

There are over 2000 prescription drugs. They are designed to treat various conditions including infections, high blood pressures, and depression.

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Many drugs are effective because they interact in a specific way with chemicals in cells.

Materials

Chemistry can supply materials to repair or replace body parats. Diseased arteries can be replaced with plastic tubes.

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Biotechnology
applies sicence to teh production of biological products or processes.
Agriculture
Chemists help to develop more productive crops and safer, more effective ways to protect crops.
Productivity

Some factors that decrease producitivity are poor soil quality, lack of water, weeds, plant disease, and pests tha teat crops. Chemists can help with many of these problems.

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Chemists can also help to conserve water.

Crop Protection

Farmers have used chemicals to attack insect pests. In that past, these chemicals were nonspecific; that is, a chemical designed to kill a pest could also kill useful insects.

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A pollutant
is a material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans or other organisms.
Chemists help to identify
pollutants and prevent pollution.
Lead
is a pollutant with a long history.
To study the universe, chemists gather
data from afar and analyze matter that is brought back to Earth.
The word chemistry comes from alchemy

Alchemy arose independently in many regions of the world. Alchemy had a practical side and a mysical side.

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Practical alchemy focused on developing techniques for workign with metals, glass, and dyes.

Alchemists developed the tools and techniques

for working with chemicals.

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Alchemists developedprocesses for separating meixtures and purifying chemicals.

In France, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier did work in the late 1700s that would revolutionize the science of chemistry.
Lavoisier helped to transform chemistry from a science of boservation to the scidnce of measurement that it is today.
The scientific method
logical, systematic approach to the solution of a scientific problem
Steps in the scientific method
include making observation, testing hypotheses, and developing theories.
Observation
information obtained through the sense; observation in science often involves a measurement
Hypothesis
a proposed explanation for an observation.
Experiment
a procedure that is used to test a hypothesis
manipulated variable
the variable that you change during an experiement
responding variable
the variable that is observed during the experiment, dependent variable
Theory
a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations.
scientific law
a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments
Collaboration and Communication

When scientists collaborate and communicate, they increase the likelihood of a successful outcome

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Effective problem solving
always involves developing a plan and the implementing the plan
The steps for solving a numeric word problem are analyze, calculate, and evaluate

  1. Analyze- to solve a word problem, you must first determine where you are starting from (identify what is known) and where you are going (identify the unknown) to be a number, you need to determine what units the answer should have before you do any calculations.
  2. Calculate- if you make an effective plan, doing the calculations is usually the easiest part of the process.
  3. Evaluate-after you calculate an answer, you should evaluate it.

The steps for solving a conceptual problem are
analyze and solve
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