Chemistry Unit 6: Nuclear Chemistry

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Explain how unstable nuclei releases energy.
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An unstable nucleus releases energy by emitting radiation during the process of radioactive decay.
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What is the change in atomic number with each type of radiation?
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Alpha Particle – Decreases atomic number by 2. Beta Particle – Increases its atomic number by 1. Gamma Ray – Does not alter the atomic number.
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What are two reasons why an alpha particle has the lowest amount of any other radioactive particle.
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Its large mass and charge.
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List the symbol for an alpha particle.
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α, 4/2 He
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(6.2: *Nuclear Transformations*) What is the band of stability for an atomic nucleus?
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The band of stability for atomic nuclei is the location of stable nuclei on a neutron-vs.-proton plot.
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What does a neutron break down into?
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A neutron breaks down into a proton to emit a beta particle (an electron) from the nucleus.
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*Have the ability to describe the type of decay that a radioisotope undergoes* (Table 25.2 on page 804)
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What are the approximate half-lives of: Carbon-14 Potassium-40 Radion-222 Uranium-238 (page 805)
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Half-life of carbon-14: 5.73 x 10^3 years Half-life of Potassium-40: 1.25 x 10^9 years Half-life of radon-222: 3.8 days Half-life of Uranium-238: 4.46 x 10^9
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Have the ability to know the half-life period influences the age of materials that are able to be dated. (Page 805)
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(page 806) Calculate half-lives.
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In artificial transmutation, what happens?
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In Artificial Transmutation, particles would bombard the nucleus of an atom.
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What is the process of forming Carbon-14?
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Carbon-14 is formed by the interaction of neutrons with Nitrogen-14 in Earth’s atmosphere.
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Explain what a nuclear chain reaction is.
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Products that are released from one reaction would form another reaction and keep going.
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What is the type of cooling used in nuclear fission?
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Water or liquid sodium is used in nuclear fission.
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What are the substances that are used as moderators in a nuclear reactor?
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Water and carbon (graphite form) are good moderators in a nuclear reactor.
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What is the effect of neutron absorption in nuclear fission?
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Neutron Absorption absorbs all the slower neutrons in an atom. It slows down the reaction in an atom.
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What are some distinguishing factors between fusion and fission reactions?
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Fission: – splits the nucleus into smaller pieces. – The only fissionable isotopes are plutonium-239 and Uranium-235. Fusion: – Combines more than one nucleus to produce a nucleus that has a greater mass. – Releases more energy than fission reactions.
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What is the reason behind wearing film badges?
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Film badges are used to detect the effects of radiation.
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In Medicine, what is the usage of radioactive isotopes?
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Radioactive isotopes are used to diagnose medical problems and occasionally treat diseases.

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