Chemistry – Nuclear Chemistry Test

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Which radioactive nuclide is used to treat cancer?
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cobalt-60
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How many half-lives are required for three-fourths of the nuclei of one isotope in a sample to decay?
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2
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Gamma rays are
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electromagnetic waves.
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Beta particles are
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electrons.
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The half-life of an isotope is the time required for half the nuclei in a sample to
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undergo radioactive decay.
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In a nuclear reaction, unstable nuclei change their number of protons and neutrons,
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give off large amounts of energy, and increase their stability.
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In nuclear chemistry, an atom is referred to as a
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nuclide.
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In nuclear reactors, the role of control rods is to
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absorb neutrons or slow down the reaction.
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Which statement does not describe fission?
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Stable, lightweight nuclei start the process.
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What is the function of shielding in a nuclear reactor?
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to contain radiation
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Alpha particles are
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helium nuclei.
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What is the half-life of an isotope if 125 g of a 500 g sample of the isotope remain after 3.0 years?
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1.5 years
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A nuclide is identified by
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the number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus.
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Among atoms with low atomic numbers, what is the neutron-proton ratio of the most stable nuclei?
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1:1
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Radioactive tracers in fertilizers can be used to measure
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how well the fertilizer is absorbed by plants.
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In an artificial transmutation, what is required to bombard nuclei with positively charged alpha particles, protons, and other ions?
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great quantities of energy
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What unit measures radiation damage to human tissue?
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rad
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The energy released in a nuclear reaction comes from
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the binding energy of the nucleus.
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All radioactive nuclides undergo
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radioactive decay.
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Which of the following generally have the lowest penetrating ability?
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alpha particles
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What does the 218 in polonium-218 represent?
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the mass number
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Which of the following has the greatest penetrating ability?
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gamma rays
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OA(FL) = AL
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OA = original amount, FL = fraction left, AL = amount left
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N = log(FL) / log (.5)
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N = number of half-lives, FL = fraction left
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(1/2) ^ N = FL
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N = number of half-lives, FL = fraction left
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N = Time gone by / Time of 1 half-life
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N = number of half-lives
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Beta decay
Beta decay
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Alpha decay
Alpha decay
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Positron (positive beta) decay
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Gamma decay
Gamma decay
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K-capture
K-capture
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EX:
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How do nuclear power plants actually produce power/electricity?
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Water is pulled in from a river/water source and turned into steam, which then drives turbine generators to produce electricity. The difference is the source of heat. At nuclear power plants, the heat to make the steam is created when uranium atoms split – called fission. Also, the nuclear aspect never comes in contact with the water/steam.
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Mass Defect
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Difference between the mass of an atom and the sum of the masses of its particles
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Nucleon
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Protons and neutrons
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Roentgen (R)
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Unit used for measuring radiation exposure

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