Chemistry Matter and Change: Chapter 12

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Kinetic Molecular Theory
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describes the behavior of matter in terms of particles in motion
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Elastic Collision
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collision in which no kinetic energy is lost
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Temperature
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measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of matter
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Diffusion
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the movement of one material through another
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Effusion
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the movement of a gas through a comparably small opening with a barrier
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Graham’s Law of Effusion
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states that the rate of effusion for a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molar mass
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Pressure
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force per unit area
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Barometer
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instrument used to measure atmospheric air pressure
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Manometer
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measures gas pressure in a closed container
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Pascal
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equal to a force of one Newton per square meter
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Atmosphere
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equal to 760 mmHg or 101.3kPa
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Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
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states that the total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the pressures of all the gases of the mixture
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Dispersion Forces
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weak forces that result from temporary shifts in density of electrons in electron clouds
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Dipole-Dipole Forces
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attractions between oppositely charged regions of polar molecules
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Hydrogen Bonds
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special dipole-dipole attractions that occur between molecules that contain a hydrogen atom and bonded to a small, highly electronegative atom with at least one lone pair of electrons
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Viscosity
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measure of the resistance to flow
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Surface Tension
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attraction forces that minimize the surface area of a liquid
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Surfactant
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compound that lowers the surface tension of water
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Cohesion
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force of attraction between identical molecules
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Adhesion
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force of attraction between molecules that are different
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Capillary Action
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the upward movement of liquid into a narrow cylinder
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Crystalline Solid
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solids with atoms, ions, or molecules in an orderly geometric shape
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Unit Cell
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smallest arrangement of atoms in a crystal lattice that has the same symmetry as the whole crystal
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Amorphous Solid
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solids in which the particles are not arranged in a regular, repeating pattern
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Melting Point
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the temperature at which the forces holding the crystal lattice together are broken and it becomes a liquid
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Vaporization
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process by which a liquid changes to a gas or vapor
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Evaporation
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vaporization only at the surface of a liquid
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Vapor Pressure
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the pressure exerted by a vapor over a liquid
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Boiling Point
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temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure
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Sublimation
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the process by which a solid changes to a gas
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Freezing Point
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temperature at which a liquid is converted into a crystalline solid
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Condensation
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process by which a gas or vapor becomes a liquid
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Deposition
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process by which a gas or vapor changes directly to a solid
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Phase Diagram
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graph of pressure versus temperature that shows in which phase a substance will exist under different conditions of temperature and pressure
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Triple Point
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point on a phase diagram that represents the temperature and pressure at which all three phases of a substance can coexist

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