Chemistry Chapter 1

chemistry
study of the composition, structure, and properties of matter, the process that matter undergoes, and the the energy changes that are accompany in these processes
organic chemistry
study of most carbon containing compounds
inorganic chemistry
study of non-organic substances, many of which have organic fragments bonded of metals
physical chemistry
study of properties and changes of matter and their relation to energy
analytical chemitry
identification of the components and composition of materials
biochemistry
the study of substances and processes occurring in living things
theoretical chemistry
use of mathematics and computers to understand the principles behind observed chemical behavior and to design and predict new compounds
chemical
any substance that has a define composition
basic research
carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge
applied research
generally carried out to solve a problem
mass
measure of amount of matter
matter
can be defined as anything that has mass and takes up space
atom
smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of other elements
true
T/F atoms are the building blocks of matter
element
pure substances that cannot be broken down into simpler stable substances and is made of one type of atom
compound
a substance that can be broken down into simple stable substance
fasle
T/F compounds are made of one element that are chemically bonded
molecule
smallest unit of an element or compound retains all properties of element or compound
true
T/F all substances have characteristic properties
extensive properties
depend on the amount of matter that is present
intensive properties
do not depend on the amount of matter present
melting point
boiling point
density
ability to conduct electricity
transfer energy as heat
list properties
physical properties
characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the identity of the substance
melting point
boiling point
density
properties of physical property
physical change
change into a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substances
grinding
cutting
melting
boiling materials
examples of physical change
change of state
physical change of a substance from one state to another
solid
state has defined volume and shape
liquid
definite volume but an indefinite shape
gas
state has neither definite volume nor shape
plasma
high temperature physical state of matter which atoms lose most of their electrons
chemical property
relates to a substances ability to undergo changes that transform it into a different substances
chemical change/ chemical reaction
change in which one or more substances are converted into different substances
reactants
substances that react in a chemical change
products
substances that are formed by chemical change
false
T/F energy can be absorbed or released and is created and destroyed
true
T/F matter can be a pure substance or mixture
mixtures
blend of two or more kinds of matter each of which its own identity and properties
homogeneous mixture
mixture that are uniform in composition
solutions
homogeneous mixtures also called
heterogeneous mixture
mixture that are not uniform though out
pure substance
has fixed composition
false
T/F in every pure substance sample of a given substance has different characteristics
true
T/F every sample of pure substance has same composition
groups/families
vertical columns of period table
false
T/F families have elements with different chemical properties
periods
horizontal of elements in periodic table
true
T/F periods have physical and chemical change regulatory
metal
element is a good electrical conductor and heat conductor
malleability
ductile
tensile strength
metals have these characteristics
nonmetals
elements poor conductors of heat and electricity
metalliod
element that has some characteristics of metal and nonmetals
A
the branch of chemistry that involves the study of substances and processes occurring in living things is called
A. biochemistry
B. organic chemistry
C. physical chemistry
D. theoretical chemistry
B
the branch of chemistry that deals with substances containing carbon is called
A. biochemistry
B. organic chemistry
C. physical chemistry
D. analytical chemistry
D
using mathematical models and computer models to understand a chemical principle is an example of
A. biochemistry
B. physical chemistry
C. analytical chemistry
D. theoretical chemistry
A
a team of scientists is working with living cells to determine how a certain enzyme functions within the cells. they are most likely working in a field of
A. biochemistry
B. physical chemistry
C. inorganic chemistry
D. theoretical chemistry
D
two chemistry students are investigating the properties of quartz crystals. they are most likely studying in the field of
A. biochemistry
B. physical chemistry
C. organic chemistry
D. inorganic chemistry
C
the definition of a chemical is
A. a toxic substance made in a laboratory
B. an unnatural material added to foods
C. any substance that has a definite composition
D. anything that has mass and takes up space
C
the goal of basic research is to
A. find a solution to a particular problem
B. produces new chemicals
C. increase knowledge
D. discover new technologies
B
a scientist is working on a developing refrigerators that do not release chemicals that destroy the ozone layer. this is the best example of
A. basic research
B. applied research
C. technological development
D. biochemistry
C
technological application often
A. occur by accident
B. degrade our quality of life
C. lag far behind basic and applied research
D. have little effect on our lives

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