substance that forms a sour solution in water, because of the formation of the hydrogen ions, has a pH of less than 7
Atomic Number
number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
unit of matter, smallest unit of an element, having all the characteristics of that element
substance that forms a bitter solution in water, because of the formation of hydroxide ions, as a pH of more than 7
Boiling Point
temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas (100 degrees Celsius)
Carbon dating
determination of the approximate age of an object, by measuring the amount of carbon-14 it contains
Chemical Property
property used to characterize materials in reactions that change their identity
Chemical change
(Chemical reaction)
any process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance, creating a new substance
Chemical composition
relation stating that the relative masses of elements are fixed in a given chemical substance
Chemical formula
representation of a substance using symbols for its elements
substance that consists of atoms/ions of 2 or more different elements, cannot be separated by physical means
to make a solution less diluted, stronger
process by which heat or electricity is transmitted through an object or between objects in direct contact
Conservation of Matter/Energy
neither energy or matter can be lost or destroyed
circular motion that occurs in a heated fluid, as hot fluid rises and cooler fluid sinks
Covalent Bond
chemical bond between nonmetals, where electrons are shared
an object’s mass divided by it’s volume
to lessen the force, strength, or purity of a mixture
acting of dissolving, or separating into parts, weaken
Electromagnetic Radiation
waves of energy that can travel through a vacuum, includes: radio waves, infrared waves, visible light, ultraviolet light, gamma rays, and x-rays
subatomic particle that is negatively charged and outside the nucleus
substance composed of atoms having identical number of protons in the nucleus
Empirical formula
chemical formula that indicates the relative proportions of the elements in a molecule rather than the actual number of atoms of the elements
chemical reactions that require and absorb energy
capacity for work
chemical reaction that produces and releases energy
splitting of an atomic nucleus, releasing large amounts of energy
the joining of atomic nuclei to form heavier nuclei, releasing enormous quantities of energy
time required to convert 1/2 of a reactant to product
form of energy associated with the motion of atoms and the capability of being transmitted through solid and fluid media
charged particle, caused by the gaining or losing 1 or more electrons
Ionic bond
chemical bond between metal and nonmetal, transfer of electrons
different atoms of the same element with the same atomic number but different mass numbers, due to different number of neutrons
Lewis Dot Structure
way of representing atoms or molecules by showing electrons as dots surrounding the element symbol, 1 bond is represented as 2 electrons
amount of matter an object has
anything that has mass and takes up space
group of elements, on the left side of the Periodic Table, they lose electrons when they become ions, are generally hard, shiny, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity
composition of 2 or more substances that are not chemically combined and capable of being separated
amount of substance that contains as many atoms, molecules, ions, or other units as the number of atoms in 12 grams of carbon-12
Molecular Formula
chemical formula that shows the number and kinds of atoms in a molecule
smallest particle of a substance
an uncharged particle found in the nucleus with a mass equal to a proton
located on the right side of the Periodic Table, gains electrons, poor conductors of heat and electricity, several are gases
Nuclear Reaction
reaction based on splitting or fusing the atomic nuclei, releasing vast energy
the positively charged central portion of an atom that comprises nearly all of atomic mass and that consists of protons and neutrons
Periodic Table
table showing all the known elements based on their atomic numbers, arranged into periods and groups based on common properties and electron arrangement
Physical Property
property used to characterize physical object (description of the object)
Physical change
change from 1 state to another, or characteristic, without changing their identity
result of a chemical reaction
particle in the nucleus of an atom with a positive charge and the atomic mass of 1
waves of energy that can travel through a vacuum
Radioactive Decay
when an unstable nucleus decays, emitting subatomic particles and radiation
substance that is at the beginning of a chemical reaction
the quality, condition, or degree of being soluble or solvable
homogeneous mixture of 2 or more substances
States of Matter

  1. state
  2. liquid
  3. gas

form of matter with a uniform chemical structure; is either an element or compound
measure of the average kinetic motion of particles in an object
Thermal Energy
heat energy based on the motion of molecules and atoms in a substance
pH scale
measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a chemical solution on a scale of 0 to 14
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