CHEMISTRY 106 CHAPTERS 18, 19, 20 STUDY GUIDE

Flashcard maker : Lily Taylor
What is the difference between an amine and amide?
amine – NH2, amide _ N – (c double bond O)
How many carbons attached to a secondary amine?
2
How many nitrogen-hydrogen bonds are there around the central nitrogen in a tertiary amine?
3
Draw aniline
Draw aniline
Draw ethylmethylamine
Draw ethylmethylamine
Draw diphenylamine
Draw diphenylamine
Draw p-chloroaniline
Draw butyldiethylamine
Draw N,N-diethylpentylamine
Higher BP/ propyl amine or trimethylamine?
propylamine
Higher BP/ ethyl amine or ethyl alcohol?
ethyl alcohol
Higher BP/ promanamine or propane
propanamine
Higher BP/ methanamine or octanamine
octanamine
Greater solubility/ methyl amine or trimethylamine
methylamine
Greater solubility/ methanamine and octamine
methnamine
DO amines have good odor or bad odor?
bad
If ethyl amine reacts with water, what are the products?
CH3-CH2-NH2 + H2O -> CH3-CH2-NH3 + OH
If ethyl amine reacts with HCL, what are the products?
CH3-CH2-NH2 + HCL -> CH3-CH2-NH3 + Cl-
Is an amine salt a solid, liquid, or gas?
solid
Are amine salts soluble in water?
yes
What kind of odor do amine salts exhibit when compared to amines?
mines smell fishy
Draw dimethylammonium chloride
Draw N-ethylpentanamide
Draw N-ethylpentanamide
Draw butanamide
Draw butanamide
Draw N-propylbenzamide
What is a heterocyclic amine?
nitrogem ring
What are the most common and stable ring sizes?
5-6
Which of the following is a heterocyclic amine? Cyclehexylamine caffeine diphenylamine
caffeine
What is the common name for ethanamide?
acetamide
Draw urea
Draw urea
What makes one amino acid different from another?
function
What are the four classes of amino acids?
polar neutral, polar acidic, polar basic, and neutral
Which of these classes are polar?
polar neutral, polar acidic, and polar basic
What is a zwitterion?
ionized form of an amino acid
What is the isoelectric point?
pH at which zwitterions have an overall charge of 0
At what pH foes the zwitterion of alkaline exist?
6.0
Which amino acids awe able to form disulfide bonds?
polar neutral amino acids
What is a dipeptide?
-yl ending for NH3 and full name for COO- end
DO eperides consist of amine bonds, amide bonds, or ester groups?
amide bonds
How would you define protein?
made up of many amino acids
Name at least 3 functions in the body that proteins perform?
repair, act as enzymes, and give energy
Primary structure in a protein is based on what?
sequence of amino acids
Name two types of secondary structures in proteins and give an example of each?
alpha helix- moglobin
beta-pleated sheet- slik
What types of interactions occur in the tertiary structure?
salt bridges, hydrophoc, hydrophilic, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bonds
What is a salt bride?
a bridge of salt to ink structures
What protein did we discuss in class that involves quaternary structure?
hemoglobin
What are some of the extreme conditions that cause denaturation to occur?
very high or very low temperatures, agitation
Which type of structure is not affected by denaturation?
primary
What is an essential amino acid?
an amino acid that cannot be made by the body
What is the difference between a globular and fibrous protein?
globular- compact/spherical, cell metabolism
fibrous- long/fiber like, wool/hair and feathers
Electrophoresis separates proteins bases on what two features?
charge and mass
Give two examples of keratins?
hair and nails
Which amino acid forms a zwitterion at a pH of 2.8?
aspartic acid
Define the term enzyme and give two examples.
proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in cells, increase the rate of reaction by lowering activation energy
What are the six classes of enzymes?
oxidoreductases, transferases, gydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases
Which class of enzymes would be associated with the hydrolysis of sucrose?
hydrolases
Which class of enzymes would be associated with the removal of CO2?
lyases
What is the purpose of a catalyst?
speeds up a chemical reaction by lowering activation energy
Which is more effective catalyst; platinum or lactase?
lactase
What is the difference between a “lock-and-key” enzyme action model and an “induced fit” enzyme action model?
lock and key- rigid substance binds to rigid enzyme
induced fit- active sight flexible to adapt to substrate
What are the two common suffixes for enzymes?
-ase and -ogen
Name three factors that influence enzyme activity?
concentration, pH, temperature
How does an increase in temperature affect the rate of a reaction?
speeds it up
Name two irreversible enzyme inhibitors?
pesticides, drugs
What is a zymogen?
inactive form of enzymes, activate when peptides are removes, transported to the part of the body where active forms are needed
Give to examples of zymogens and what organs produce them.
pepsinogen-stomach. angiotensinogen-liver
Name two types of cofactors that assist enzymes.
metal ions or small molecules
Are vitamins synthesized in the body or obtained form diet
obtained from diet
Are vitamins required in large amounts?
no, trace amounts
What are the two groups of vitamins?
fat soluble and water soluble
Name the vitamins that are water soluble?
B 1, 2, 3, 5, ,6 ,9, 12, C and H
What is the importance of vitamin A?
needed for vision
What is the importance of vitamin E?
antioxidant in cells
Scurvy results form a deficiency of what vitamin?
vitamin C

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