Chemistry 1.1-1.3

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Matter is anything that has __1__ and occupies __2__.
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1. mass 2. space
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Chemistry is the study of the __3__ of matter and the __4__ that matter undergoes.
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3. composition 4. changes
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Chemistry has traditionally been divided into __5__ areas of study.
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5. five
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Organic chemistry is the study of chemicals that contain __6__, while inorganic chemistry is primarily the study of chemicals that do not contain __7__.
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6. carbon 7. carbon
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Biochemistry is the study of the processes that take place in __8__.
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8. organisms
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__9__ is focused on the composition of mater, while __10__ deals with the mechanism, the rate, and the __11__ that occurs when matter undergoes a change.
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9. analytical chemistry 10. physical chemistry 11. energy transfer
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A chemist is likely to be working in __12__ area of chemistry at the same time.
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12. two
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Organic chemistry is the study of chemicals that do not contain carbon. (AT;ST;NT)
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NT
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The goal of chemistry is to accumulate knowledge. (AT;ST;NT)
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ST
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Biochemistry involves the study of living organisms. (AT;ST;NT)
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AT
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An organic chemist uses analytical chemistry. (AT;ST;NT)
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ST
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Applied chemistry is used to attain specific goals. (AT;ST;NT)
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AT
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Chemistry
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study of the composition of substances
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Pure Chemistry
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the pursuit of chemistry knowledge for its own sake
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Organic Chemistry
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study of essentially all chemicals that contain carbon
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Inorganic Chemistry
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study of essentially all chemicals that do not contain carbon
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Technology
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the means by which a society provides its members with those things needed and desired
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Physical Chemistry
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study of the mechanism, the rate, and the energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
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Analytical Chemistry
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study of the composition of matter and the changes it undergoes
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Matter
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anything that has mass and occupies space
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Biochemistry
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study of the chemistry of living organims
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Applied Chemistry
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research that is directed toward a practical goal or application.
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Chemists design materials to fit __13__ needs.
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13. specific
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Objects that can be seen only under magnification are part of the __14__ world.
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14. microscopic
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Chemistry is important in the production and conservation of __15__.
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15. energy
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One of the easiest ways to __16__ energy is through the use of insulation.
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16. conserve
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New kinds of __17__ for the storage of energy are also being developed.
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17. methods
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Chemistry plays a role in efforts to increase the __18__ of farmland and to protect __19__ from insect pests.
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18. production 19. crops
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The trend is toward chemicals that treat __20__
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20. insect pests
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Astronomy and __21__ exploration also benefit from chemistry.
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21. space
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For example, a robotic vehicle delivered to the surface of Mars can determine the __22__ of Mars rocks.
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22. matter
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Insulin can be produced when genes from bacteria are inserted into humans. (AT;ST;NT)
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NT
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World energy demand is decreasing. (AT;ST;NT)
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ST
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Some human genes have been inserted into bacteria. (AT;ST;NT)
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ST
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Low levels of lead in the blood can permanently damage the nervous system of a growing child. (AT;ST;NT)
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NT
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Macroscopic
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describes objects that are large enough to see with the unaided eye
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Pollutant
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material found in air, water, or soil that is harmful to humans or other organisms
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Biotechnology
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applies science to the production of biological products or processes
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Microscopic
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describes objects that can be seen only under magnification
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Fossil Fuels
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materials formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals
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Human Genome Project
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determined the sequence of genes in human DNA
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Before there were chemists, __23__ were studying matter.
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23. alchemists
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They developed __24__ and __25__ for working with chemicals.
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24. tools 25. techniques
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Lavoisier helped make chemistry a science of __26__.
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26. measurement
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A logical, __27__ approach is the best way to solve a difficult problem.
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27. systematic
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One logical approach to solving scientific problems is the __28__.
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28. scientific method
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This method may begin with an observation, followed by __29__, or a proposed explanation for what is observed.
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29. hypothesis
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You can conduct an __30__ to test a hypothesis.
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30. experiment
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If a hypothesis meets the test of repeated experimentation, it may become a __31__, which is a well-tested explanation for a broad set of observations.
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31. theory
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A __32__ is a concise statement that summarizes the results of many observations and experiments.
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32. scientific law
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A theory can be easily proved. (AT;ST;NT)
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ST
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Scientific laws explain observations. (AT;ST;NT)
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NT
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A well-planned experiment will disprove a hypothesis. (AT;ST;NT)
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ST
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Scientific Method
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a logical approach to the solution of scientific problems
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Observation
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information obtained through one’s senses
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Manipulated Variable
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variable that one changes during an experiment
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Hypothesis
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a proposed explanation for an observation
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Experiment
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a means to test a hypothesis
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Responding Variable
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variable that is observed during an experiment
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On the periodic table, symbols represent __?__.
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elements
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What are vertical columns (1-18) called?
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groups or families
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What are horizontal rows (1-7) called?
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periods
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Most elements on the PT are __?__.
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metals
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Mellatoids (semimetals) are between the __?__ and the __?__.
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metals and nonmetals
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Shiny; usually solids at room temperature;malleable; ductile; good conductors of heat and electricity
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metals
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Solids, liquids, or gases at room temperature; not shiny; brittle; not good conductors of heat or electricity
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nonmetals
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Formulas represent __?__
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compounds
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What is an ionic compound?
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composed of 1 metal and 1 or more nonmental (metal always first in formula)
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What is a molecular compound?
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2 or more nonmentals (metal always first in formula)

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