Chemical Bonding (Chapter 5)

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Ion
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electrically charged atom
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cation
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positive ion caused by the gain or loss of electrons
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anion
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negative ion caused by the gain of electrons
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chemical bonding
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forces that hold 2 or more atoms together
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Ionic Bonding
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bonding that results from the transfer of electrons from one another this occurs between metals and non metals
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Crystal Lattice
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crystal composed of of billions of ions held together by their oppositly charged ions
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Covalent Bonds
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bond in which two atoms SHARE electrons. This occurs between non-metals
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Pure Covalent Bonds
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bond in which each atom has an exactly equal attraction for the electrons being shared
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diatomic molecules
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molecules formed between 2 atoms of the same element
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non-polar covalent bonds
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bond in which there is a nearly equal attraction for shared electrons resulting in a balanced distribution of charge
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polar-covalent bond
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bond in which there is an unequal attraction for electrons and a resulting unbalanced distribution of charge
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double bond
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bond formed by 2 pairs of electrons
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triple bond
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bond formed by 3 pairs of electrons
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metallic bonding
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bond between metals
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Non-Polar Covalent
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PS (polar,non polar)
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Polar
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CO (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Polar
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BF (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Polar
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HO (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Ionic
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MgCl (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Metallic
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Hg (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Ionic
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CaO (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Non-Polar
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SiP (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Polar
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ClF (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Polar
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AsCl(Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Pure Covalent
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F-F (Polar,Nonpolar covalent, ionic or metallic)
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Chemical Formula
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a short way of showing the number and kinds of atoms in a substnace
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Molecular Formula
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indicates the the number and kind of atoms in a molecule
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molecule
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smallest independent unit of a chemical substance
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network solids
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large covalent molecules that tend to bond to one another
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empirical formula
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SIMPLEST whole number ratio of a compound; chemical formula for ionic compounds
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Structual Formula
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formula that shows the kind of number and arrangament of atoms in a formula
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Polar Molecule
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a molecule with an unequal distribution of charge
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Polyatomic Ion
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a group of covalently bonded atoms that act as a single atom
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Oxidation Number
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the (charge) that an atom has in a particular molecule or ion
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When there is q covalent bond
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When do you use prefixes for writing formulas?
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+3
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What is the oxidation number of group 3 elements
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Co3⁻²
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Polyatomic Ion (Carbonate)
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Non-Metals
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Elements that gain electrons in an ionic bond
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Molecular
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is C₂H₆ a molecular or empirical formula?
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Hydroxcide
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OH⁻
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Ionic Compound
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High melting point due to strong attraction between oppositly charged ions
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Double Bond
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Bond formed from 4 electrons
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Metallic Bond
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bond where electrons are part of a common electron cloud
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Metal
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elements that always take on ⁺1,⁺2,or ⁺3 charge in a bond
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Flourine
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the element with the greatest attraction for electrons
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ionic
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is AgCl ionic or Covalent
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Aluminim Sulfate
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name → Al₂(S0₄)₃
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Carbon dioxcide
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name→ CO
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Barium Carbonate
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name → BaCo₃
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Copper₂ Carbonate
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name→ CuCo₃
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FeCl₃
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write out Iron lll chloride
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Dioxygen Pentoxcide
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name→ P₂0₅
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CB₃
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write out tetrabromide
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it is a noble gas, and has a full valence shell
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if it has 8 electrons what is true
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Molecule
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Smallest unit of a covalently bonded substance that has all properties of that substacne
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Mono
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Prefix for 1
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Di
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Prefix for 2
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Tri
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Prefix for 3
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Tetra
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Prefix for 4
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Penta
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Prefix for 5
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Hexa
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Prefix for 6

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