Chem 1127 – Final Exam

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Wavelength
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the distance between 2 consecutive crests or troughs often measured in meters or nanometers
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crest
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rise above midline
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trough
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sink below midline
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frequency
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the number of wave cycles that pass a given point in unit time often measured in hertz
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wave cycles
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successive crests or troughs
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?
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wavelength
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v
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frequency
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c
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speed of light
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speed of light
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2.998E8 m/s
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light visible to the eye
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400-700nm
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photons
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stream of particles that generates light
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unit of energy
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joule (J)
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E
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hv
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energy
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inversely related to wavelength
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h
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planck’s constant
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1nm
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10^-9m
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h
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6.626E-34Js
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1kj
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10^3J
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En
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enery of the electron
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-Rh
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2.180E-18J
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n^2
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the principle quantum number
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the point at which the proton and electron are completely separated
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zero
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ground state
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lowest energy state for which n=1
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excited state
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when an electron absorbs enough energy it moves to this
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hv
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enery of the photon
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v=RH/h [1/(nlo)^2 – 1/(nhi)^2]
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used to find the frequency or wavelength of any of the lines in the H spectrum
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kinetic energy of an electron
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inversely related to the volume of the region to which it is confined
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orbital
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probability is independent of direction
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quantum numbers
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n, l, m(under)l
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?
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wave function
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from ?
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we can deduce the relative energy of that orbital, its shape, and orientation in space
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principle energy levels
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primary importance in determining the energy of an electron
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energy of H atom
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depends only on n
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as n increases
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the energy of the electron increases and on average is found farther out from nucleus
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sublevels of second quantum number
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s, p, d, f
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second quantum number
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l
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l determines
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general shape of electron cloud associated with an electron
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larger values of l =
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more complex shapes
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if n=1
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l has to be 0
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in the nth principal level
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there are n levels
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for atoms containing more than one electron
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the energy is dependent on l and n
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orbitals
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differ from one another in the value assigned to the third quantum number, m(under)l
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m(under)l
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determines the direction in space of the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus
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all orbitals in a given d or f sublevel
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have the same energy
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electron spin
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associated with the fourth quantum number, m(under)s
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m(under)s
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not related to n, l, or m(under)l
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parallel spins
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electrons that have the same value of m(under)s (i.e. both +1/2 or both -1/2)
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opposed spins
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electrons that have different m(under)s values (i.e. one +1/2 and one -1/2)
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Pauli Exclusion Principle
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requires that no two electrons in an atom can have the same set of four quantum numbers
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capacity for electrons in an s sublevel
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2e-
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capacity for electrons in a p sublevel
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6e-
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capacity for electrons in a f sublevel

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14e-
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total capacity for electrons in the fourth principal level
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32e-
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s sublevel
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spherical
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p sublevel
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two lobes along an axis
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electron configuration
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shows the number of electrons indicated by a superscript in each sublevel
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electrons enter the available sublevels
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in order of increasing sublevel energy
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orbital diagrams
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shows how electrons are distributed among orbitals
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Hund’s Rule
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when several orbitals of equal energy are available, as in a given sublevel, electrons enter singly with parallel spins
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paramagnetic
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if there are unpaired electrons present, the solid will be attracted into the field
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diamagnetic
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if the atoms in the solid contain only paired electrons, it is slightly repelled by the field
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when a monatomic ion is formed from an atom
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electrons are added to or removed from sublevels in the highest principal energy level
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isoelectronic
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having the same electron configuration
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all transition metals form cations by
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loss of outer s electrons
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atomic radii decreases
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left to right
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atomic radii increases
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up to down
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ionization energy
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a measure of how difficult it is to remove an electron from a gaseous atom
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to bring about ionization, energy must be
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absorbed
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ionization energies are always
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positive quantities
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ionization energy increases
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across the periodic table from left to right
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ionization energy decreases
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moving down the periodic table
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electronegativity
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measures the ability of an atom to attract to itself the electron pair forming a covalent bond
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the greater the electronegativity of an atom
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the greater its attraction for electrons
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electronegativity increases
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moving from left to right across the periodic table
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electronegativity decreases
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moving down a group in the periodic table
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valence electrons
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outermost principal energy level
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core electrongs
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fill the principal level n=1
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covalent bond
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a pair of electrons shared between two atoms
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lone pair
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an unshared pair of electrons, owned entirely by one atom
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single bond
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a single electron pair shared between two bonded atoms
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octet rule
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nonmetals, except for H, achieve a noble-gas structure by sharing in an octet of electrons
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resonance hybrid
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the actual structure as an intermediate between the two resonant forms
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formal charge
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the difference between the number of VE in the free atom and the number assigned to that atom in the Lewis structure
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free radicals
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molecules containing an odd number of VE
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molecular geometry can be predicted on the basis of
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electron-pair repulsion
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VSEPR model
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the VE pairs surrounding an atom repel one another so orbitals containing those electron pairs are oriented to be as far apart as possible
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trigonal planar
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120
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tetrahedron
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109.5 AX4
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trigonal bipyramid
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AX5
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octahedral
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AX6
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polar
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as a result of an unsymmetrical distribution of electrons, the bond or molecule contains a positive and a negative pole
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dipole
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contains a positive and a negative pole
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nonpolar
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a symmetrical distribution of electrons leads to a bond or molecule with no positive or negative poles
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nonpolar bonds
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formed whenever the two atoms joined are identical
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polar bonds
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bonds in which the electron density is unsymmetrical
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matter
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anything that has mass and occupies space
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the three phases of matter
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solid
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fixed shape and volume
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liquid
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fixed volume but is not rigid in shape
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gas
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has neither a fixed volume nor shape
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pure substances
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fixed composition and a unique set of properties
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mixtures
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composed of two or more substances
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element
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a type of matter that cannot be broken down into two or more pure substances
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compound
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a pure substance that contains more than one element
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electrolysis
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involves passing an electric current through a compound, usually in the liquid state
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mixture
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contains two or more substances combined in such a way that each substance retains its chemical identity
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homogeneous
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or uniform mixtures are ones in which the composition is the same throughout (aka solution)
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solution
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made up of a solvent, usually taken to be the substance present in largest amount, and one or more solutes
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heterogeneous
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or nonuniform mixtures are those in which the composition varies throughout
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filtration
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used to separate a heterogeneous solid-liquid mixture
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distillation
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used to resolve a homogeneous solid-liquid mixture
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mega
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10^6
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kilo
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10^3
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deci
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10^-1
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centi
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10^-2
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milli
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10^-3
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micro
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10^-6
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nano
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10^-9
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pico
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10^-12
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mass
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a measure of the amount of matter in an object
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weight
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a measure of the gravitational force acting on an object
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temperature
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the factor that determines the direction of heat flow
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significant figures
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the meaningful digits obtained in a measurement
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1 km
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10^3m
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1cm
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10^-2m
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1mm
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10^-3m
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1nm
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10^-9m
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1m^3
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10^6cm^3
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1cm^3
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1mL
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10^-3L
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1cm^3
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1kg
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10^3g
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1mg
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10^-3g
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1 mile
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5280ft
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intensive
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independent of amount
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extensive
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depend on amount
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chemical properties
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observed when the substance takes part in a chemical reaction
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physical properties
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observed without changing the chemical identity of a substance
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melting point
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the temperature at which a substance changes from the solid to liquid state
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boiling point
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the temperature at which bubbles filled with vapor form within a liquid
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Z
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atomic number
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A
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mass number
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atomic number
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number of protons
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mass number
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number of prootons +number of neutrons
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theoretical yield
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the maximum quanityt that can be obtained under such conditions, assuming the reaction goes to completion and no product is lost
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simplest formula
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gives the simplest whole number ratio of atoms present
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percent composition
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the mass percents of the elements present
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strong electrolytes
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the solution conducts an electric current
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nonelectrolytes
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the solution does not conduct electricity
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polyatomic ion
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containing more than one atom
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“charged molecule”
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polyatomic ion
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monatomic ion
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derived from a single atom by the loss or gain of electrons
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metals
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have high electrical conductivities
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metalloids
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have electrical conductivities that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals
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molecular formulas
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represents molecular substances
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structural formulas
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represent the structures of molecules
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condensed structural formula
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suggests the bonding pattern in the molecule and highlights the presence of a reactive group of atoms within a molecule
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atomic mass
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atomic weight
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nuclear symbol
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shows the composition of a nucleus
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acid
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a species that produces H+ ions in water solutions
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base
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a species that produces OH- ions in water solution
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strong acids
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ionize completely, forming H+ ions and anions
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strong base
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is completely ionized to OH- ions and cations in water solution
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weak acid
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molecules containing an ionizable hydrogen atom (i.e. only partially ionized to H+ ions in water)
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weak bases
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react with H20 molecules, acquiring H+ ions and leaving OH- ions behind
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amines
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derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by hydrocarbon groups
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a common class of weak bases of the organic molecules
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amines
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strong acids and bases
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are completely ionized in water
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weak acids and bases
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do not react completely
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neutralization
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when the H+ ions and OH- ions react with eachother to form H20 molecules
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titration
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measuring the volume of a standard solution required to react with a measured amount of sample
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standard solution
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a solution of known concentration
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equivalence point
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the point at which the reaction is complete
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redox reaction
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a reaction in aqueous solution that involves a transfer of electrons between two species
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oxidation
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an increase in oxidation number
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reduction
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a decrease in oxidation number
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oxidizing agent
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the ion or molecule that accepts electrons
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reducing agent
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the species that donates electrons

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