Chapters 8-10

question

A major source of mechanical power in medieval Europe after 1050 was the
answer

water mill, which was used to grind grain, crush pulp, and press oil
question

In northern Europe, increasing use of the heavy-wheeled plow between 800 and 1050 coincided with
answer

fundamental changes in patterns of peasant settlement
question

Despite the potential advantages of the manorial system, _________ played the dominant role in creating it.
answer

lords
question

Serfs were treated like slaves in parts of medieval Europe with the major exception that:
answer

serfs could not be sold apart from their historic lands
question

The rotation of crops
answer

spread labor evenly over the course of the year
question

During the 11th century, the most spectacular developments in long-distance trade took place in
answer

northern Italy
question

One factor that contributed to the growth of some urban centers such as Paris and London was
answer

their ability to draw on the wealth of the immediate area around the city
question

Major towns and cities in the High Middle Ages
answer

sustained their population only through continuous immigration from the countryside
question

The two fundamental factors driving the high medieval European economy were
answer

population growth and an increasingly efficient market for goods
question

Between 1000 and 1300 in western Europe, social mobility
answer

and social inequality both increased
question

One response to the Viking invasions of the 10th century was the development of
answer

castles
question

Self-governing elites most frequently developed in areas of western Europe where
answer

royal authority was either weak or nonexistent
question

Ruling from their castles, lords claimed the right to
answer

collect taxes, administer justice, wage war, and mint money
question

Central to the establishment of fedual monarchies was the
answer

personal relationship among individuals at each level of feudal society
question

The term feudal comes from the Latin feudum, which refers to
answer

“fief” or a gift that created a contractual relationship
question

The 10th century was known for ineffective kingship throughout Europe and
answer

an incompetent and largely corrupt papacy
question

Many Christians believed in the special protective and curative powers of objects associated with saints such as a fragment of bone or cloth from their garment. Such relics
answer

were displayed in elaborate reliquaries to demonstrate the prestige and wealth of a church or monastery; demonstrate a growing spirituality of medieval people; showed the great devotion people had toward the Church; prompted incidents of “holy theft”
question

The monastic reform movement that began at Cluny in Burgundy was unique in that it
answer

undertook the establishment of a large number of subordinate “daughter houses” also free of control by local lords
question

One of the many reforms undertaken by the Cluniac monasteries was to enforce the monastic vow of celibacy on all priests. Some segments of the Church rejected this reform claiming that
answer

the church fathers, such Ambrose, had been married
question

In 1059, Pope Nicholas II issued a new decree on papal elections, which gave the power to elect future popes to the
answer

College of Cardinals
question

The importance of the investiture Conflict was that it
answer

formally, though not in practice, separated the “church” and the “state” in European politics
question

The expansion of the Byzantine empire during the 10th and early 11th centuries was assisted by
answer

Christian missionary activity in Russia and the Balkans
question

Relations between Muslims and Christians in the area Christians referred to as the Holy Lands were upset when Jerusalem was captured in 1071 by the
answer

Seljuq Turks
question

When Alexius Comnenus asked for Western help against the Seljuq Turks, he was hoping for a
answer

force of heavily armored knights to deploy against the lightly armored Turkish cavalry
question

The First Crusade
answer

weakened Byzantine control over trade in the eastern Mediterranean
question

When preaching the First Crusade, some churchmen in western Europe offered crusaders
answer

a plenary indulgence, promising that those who died would immediately go the heaven
question

The most devastating consequence of the Crusades was the
answer

new religious and political ethos that informed the reconquest of Iberia; development of Islamic and Christian doctrines of holy war; underlying justification of the English wars against the Welsh and Scots; justification for the massacre and dispossession of the “heretics: of southern France
question

The Muslim world was far advanced over Europe in the area of medicine as evidenced by the writings of
answer

IbnSina
question

The Muslim philosopher known in Europe as Averroes attempted to resolve a perceived problem in philosophy of
answer

reconciling the Greek idea of the freedom individuals had in the world and the view that God determined everything that happens in the world
question

From the Islamic world come some of the best-known poetry in the world, among which is the poetry of
answer

Umar Khayyam
question

Europe was transformed radically in the 12th and 13th centuries because of
answer

the emergence and growth of universities; technological innovations; the new vernacular literature; the emergence of large-scale territorial monarchies
question

The High Middle Ages witnessed the birth of a new political structure known as the
answer

national monarchy
question

The codification of canon law and the extension of papal powers and authority had, at least in part, its germination in
answer

the dispute between Henry II and Thomas Becket
question

The Magna Carta was signed by King John
answer

to define the rights of nobles and limit his power, doing so only because his barons forced him into it
question

By the early 14th century, the English Parliament had emerged as a
answer

representative assembly, legislative body, political body; financial body
question

The French kingdom of the Capetians had shrunk dramatically under the rule of _______, who lost his wife and lands to the English king.
answer

Louis VII
question

The tradition of French administration that balanced local diversity of custom with bureaucratic centralization in Paris began
answer

Philip II, “Augustus
question

In which country did certain nobles successfully claim and exercise the right to elect their king, regardless of the claims of hereditary succession to the throne
answer

Germany
question

To the territories he inherited from his father, Frederick Barbarossa, King Henry VI added
answer

Sicily
question

King Frederick II of Germany
answer

pursued his grandfather’s policy of supporting the German princes while enforcing imperial rights throughout the empire
question

Compared to the popes active in the Middle Ages, popes in the High Middle Ages were
answer

more concerned with establishing a reputation for justice
question

Innocent III was the most successful pope in the High Middle Ages because he
answer

successfully disciplined kings and heretics, and defined the central dogmas of the Church
question

The emphasis on visible works of Christian piety and devotion in the High Middle Ages served to
answer

clearly distinguish Christian groups from their non-Christian neighbors
question

The Fourth Lateran Council
answer

defined the central dogmas of the Church; set rules for the behavior of priests; established distinctive apparel for non-Christians; established free primary schools in major European cities
question

In the 12th century, the central focus for Christianity was
answer

the mass
question

Which Christian figure became the center of a rapidly expanding “cult” in the 12th century and the namesake of the cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris as well as other places?
answer

the Virgin Mary
question

In addition to the expansion of “Inquisition” trials, what mechanism did the Latin Church use to control popular heresy in the 13th century?
answer

The Church launched a full-scale internal crusade against the Cathars
question

Saint Francis of Assisi emphasized which religious themes in his ministry and new monastic order
answer

apostolic poverty and an imitation of the life of Christ
question

Waldes’s reform movement in the late 12th century was considered heretical by the Church because the Waldensians did not
answer

accept the Church’s authority and directives on the issue of lay preaching
question

The increasing persecution of European Jews in the 13th and 14th centuries should be interpreted in the context of
answer

general Christian concerns about heresy and the growing suspicion of Jews at all levels of society
question

The growth of schools in the 12th century Europe can be attributed primarily to
answer

the general economic revival and the emergence of strong government
question

The seven liberal arts that the universities of Europe established as their curriculum was comprised of the
answer

trivium and quadrivium
question

The rise of lay education in 12th and 13th century Europe was important because through it
answer

people were increasingly able to pursue nonreligious line of inquiry, and Western culture ultimately became more independent of religion than other cultures
question

By 1200, most of the boys who entered schools
answer

were not members of the clergy and never intended to be
question

Medieval scholastics taught that
answer

there was a fundamental compatibility between human reason and experience in the teachings in the Bible
question

Modern universities can trace their origin ultimately back to the
answer

Abelard at Notre-Dame in Paris
question

Anselm argued that
answer

God, as a perfect being, must exist simply by definition
question

The term university orginially meant a
answer

corporation or guild
question

Upon admission to university, medieval students typically studied the liberal arts, which meant
answer

advanced work in Latin grammar, rhetoric, and logic
question

Students who attended medieval universities
answer

were generally rowdy; regarded themselves as privileged; thought of themselves as separate from the surrounding town; needed to work hard to master their studies
question

In the second half of the 11th century, educated Westerners vastly increased their knowledge when
answer

important works of Greek and Arabic literature were translated into Latin
question

Compared to Saint Augustine, Saint Thomas Aquinas seems to have
answer

placed a greater value on the use of reason and the study of the physical universe to know God
question

Chivalry
answer

was a means of legitimizing social positions acquired through either bravery or skill
question

Courtly love emphasized the ennobling effect of
answer

the love of a noble woman upon a knight
question

Wolfram von Eschenbach was a German poet known primarily for his
answer

story depicting the search for the Holy Grail
question

The most representative genre of literature popular during the High Middle Ages was the
answer

fabliau
question

Dante’s Divine Comedy stresses that
answer

the route to knowledge of the divine is through Christian wisdom
question

In emotional or expressive terms, the Gothic cathedral can best be thought of as
answer

expressions of a renewed confidence in life and the strivings of humans
question

The essential features of the Romanesque architectural style are
answer

rounded arches, massive stone walls, and small windows
question

The “Renaissance of the 12th Century” should ultimately be considered a
answer

revival of classical texts creatively adapted to the unique Christian culture of the High Middle Ages
question

In the early 14th century, the agricultural economy in Europe had begun to
answer

fail due to climate change and excessive cultivation
question

The combined effects of famine, war, and plague in the 14th century reduced the total population of western Europe by
answer

at least one half
question

The social mobility of the 14th century was made possible largely due to the
answer

Black Death
question

After 1450, European towns grew significantly in size and economic power because they
answer

attracted more people and developed specialized products and services
question

Which lower-class rebellion in the later Middle Ages involved the revolt of workers in the cloth industry who sought greater participation in local governments?
answer

the Floretine Ciompi revolt of 1378
question

The English Peasants’ Revolt differed from other revolts and rebellions of the 14th century as it was fueled by
answer

perceived corruption in the Church
question

One means by which the nobility of Europe asserted themselves was through membership in chivalric orders founded by the rulers of various countries. An example fo such an order would be the
answer

Knights of the Garter
question

In late-medieval France, which dynasty eventually replaced the capetians as rulers?
answer

the Valois
question

The first phase of the Hundred Years’ War was marked by
answer

successive English victories over the France
question

England’s good fortunes in the Hundred Years’ War turned for the bad when
answer

Edward III died, leaving a young Richard to rule
question

During the rise of national monarchies, which modern country resisted unification and remained divided among dozens of independent principalities throughout the later Middle Ages?
answer

Germany
question

Captured by the Burgundians and condemned by the theologians of Paris as a witch, Joan of Arc was
answer

tried for heresy by an English ecclesiastical court
question

The most important factor in the rise of Spain as a major European power was the
answer

unification of the kingdoms of Aragon and Castile
question

Spain was made whole with the reconquest of 1492 but was not truly a single nation until
answer

1714
question

The largest multiethnic empire of the premodern world was
answer

Russia
question

The Golden Horde was the
answer

Mongol dynasty that controlled Russia
question

Moscow replaced _____ as the center of Russian power in the last Middle Ages
answer

Kiev
question

When it fought against Poland-Lithuania in the last 15th century, Moscow appealed to its citizens by
answer

emphasizing the Roman Catholicism of Poland-Lithuania
question

Before the fall of Constatinople in 1453, the Byzantine empire tried to shore up its defensive position against the Ottoman Turks by
answer

submitting to papal (Roman) authority in religious matters
question

The rebellion of the Mongol leader Timur the Lame created a power vacuum that allowed
answer

the Muscovite grand duke, Ivan III, to launch a series of conquests to forward his imperial agenda
question

During the so-called Babylonian Captivity of the 14th century, the papacy was
answer

moved to Avignon, France
question

The Roman Catholic Church during the later Middle Ages
answer

changed a great deal as it suffered from the same economic hardships caused by the Black Death as the rest of Europe did
question

The Great Schism ended in 1417 when the
answer

Council of Constance elected a new pope
question

The sacraments of the Church
answer

were valid if administered by a properly ordained priest
question

Master Eckhart taught that
answer

there was a spark of the divine within every human soul
question

One way people of the medieval period came to understand the divine in their own lives was through
answer

the Imitation of Christ by Thomas a Kempis
question

Although Jan Hus adopted the ideas of John Wyclif, he did diverge from Wyclif in his view
answer

on the Eucharist being fully available to all people
question

The 13th century had witnessed the development of the philosophical belief that the world was rational, organized, and comprehensile to human beings. In the 14th century, William of Ockhm:
answer

denied that human reason could prove fundamental theological truths
question

Baccaccio’s Decameron is historically significant because it
answer

is written in the vernacular and portrays men and women as they really were
question

Compared to the High Middle Ages, the later Middle Ages
answer

signaled the beginning of vernacular poetry and popular stories of courtly romance
question

What is the central theme of Christine de Pisan’s The City of Ladies?
answer

The book is an allegory that defends women against the misogynistic claims of men
question

Just as Boccaccio wrote about a group of people telling stories to one another while sitting out the Black Death, _______ wrote about a group of people telling stories to one another while on a pilgrimage
answer

Chaucer
question

The later Middle Ages saw an important development in the literary world in that
answer

Christine de Pisan could write for a larger audience defending the character and history of women; Geoffrey Chaucer could give voice to a variety of people representing different classes and outlooks on life; increasingly innovative and ambitious ideas appeared in books; professional authors could make their living with their pens
question

In the later Middle Ages naturalism in literature extended itself to art as well, causing artists to
answer

pay closer attention to how things really looked
question

A fresco painting is essentially
answer

pigment mixed with plaster that is applied to a wall
question

The medieval painter Giotto is remembered especially because he
answer

brought a deep humanity and naturalism to his religious images
question

The Flemish painter Roger van der Weyden expressed piety and the ever present message of the Bible by
answer

portraying biblical figures in contemporary settings
question

The development of artillery in late-medieval Europe affected military strategy in that
answer

stone castles became less viable as defensive strongholds
question

The invention of mechanical time-keeping machines (clocks)
answer

gradually led to the creation of new concepts regarding labor and productivity
question

The invention of movable-type printing and the printing press made possible the
answer

Protestant Reformation in the following century

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member