Chapters 5, 6, & 7

question

Rutherford’s model of the atom (nuclear) did not explain what two things regarding electrons?
answer

how the electrons occupy the space around the nucleus and why the negatively charged electrons aren’t pulled into the atom’s positively charged nucleus
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Analysis of light helped determine that an atom’s chemical reactivity is due to the arrangement of its what?
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electrons
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What is a form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space?
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electromagnetic radiation
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What is the number of waves that pass a given point per second?
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frequency
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What is the greek letter frequency is represented by?
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nu
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What is the shortest distance between equivalent points on continuous wave?
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wavelength
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What greek letter is wavelength represented by?
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lambda
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What is a wave’s height from the origin to a crew or origin to a trough?
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amplitude
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The higher the frequency of a wave, the ______ its wavelength.
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shorter
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The lower the frequency of a wave, the __________ the wavelength.
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longer
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When white light is bent by a prism, it forms a series of colors. List the acronym that represents these colors.
answer

ROYGBIV
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What does ROYGBIV mean?
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red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet
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Which color has the shortest wavelength and the greets energy at what value?
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violet, 400nm
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Which color has the shortest wavelength and least energy at what value?
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red, 700nm
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Max Planck concluded that matter can gain or lose energy only in small, specific amounts called what?
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quanta
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What is the minimum amount of energy that can be gain or lost by an atom?
answer

quantum
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What is the number value with units of Planck’s constant?
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6.626 x 10^-34 J*s
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When electrons are emitted from a metal’s surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface?
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photoelectric effect
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In 1905, Einstein props that electromagnetic radiation was both ____________ and _________ _____ natures.
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wavelike and particle like
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What is a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy?
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photon
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What is the set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of an element (like neon)?
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atomic emission spectrum
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What is the lowest allowable energy state of an atom?
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ground state
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What state is it called when an atom gains energy?
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excited electron state
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When an atom drops back from excited to the ground state, it emits what that corresponds wight he amount of energy?
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photon
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What did Bohr compare his model to? (it takes energy to get up and you cannot go in between)
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7 rungs of a ladder
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What are the three series that describe hydrogen’s spectral lines?
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Lyman, Balmer, and Paschen
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Which series describes hydrogen’s spectral lines for the ultraviolet?
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Lyman
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Which series that describes hydrogen’s spectral lines for visible lines?
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Balmer
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What series describes hydrogen’s spectral lines are for the infrared?
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Paschen
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Who worked on Bohr’s model and made the assumption that particles of matter like electrons may act like what?
answer

De Brogile, waves
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What states it is fundamentally impossible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time?
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Heisenburg uncertainty principle
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Schrodinger developed an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves called what?
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the quantum mechanical model of the atom
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What is a three dimensional region around the nucleus that describes an electron’s probable location?
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atomic orbital
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All “s” orbitals are what shaped?
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spherical
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All “p” orbitals are what shaped?
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dumbbell
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What is the arrangement of electrons in an atom called?
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electron configuration
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What states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available?
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Aufbau principle
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What states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbital?
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Hund’s rule
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What states that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins?
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The Pauli exclusion principle
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What are electrons in an atom’s outermost orbital?
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valence electrons
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What do valence electrons do?
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determine chemical reactivity of the atom
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What structure did Lewis devise that consists of the element’s symbol which represents the atomic nucleus and inner level electrons, surrounded by dots representing the atoms’s what?
answer

electron dot, valence electrons
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All stars are composed manly of what two gases?
answer

hydrogen and helium
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What one element that does not occur naturally on Earth but is found in stars using a spectroscope?
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technetium
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Who developed the first periodic table in 1869?
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Dmitri Mendeleev
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How was the first periodic table arranged?
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by increasing atomic mass into columns with similar properties
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Who changed the way the elements were arranged on the periodic table?
answer

Henry Mosely
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There is a periodic repetition of chemical and physical properties of the elements when they are arranged by increasing atomic number that is stated in what law?
answer

periodic law
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What are the horizontal rows of elements called?
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periods
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What are the vertical columns on the periodic table called?
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groups or families
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The groups designated with a B are referred to as what?
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transition metals
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The groups designated by an A are referred to as what and why?
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representative elements bc of a wide range of chemical and physical properties
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What are elements that are shiny, solid at room temperature, good conductors of heat and electricity?
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metals
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What is metal that can be pounded into thin sheets called?
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malleable
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What is the term for when metals can be drawn into wires?
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ductile
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On the periodic table, what color are the metals?
answer

blue
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On the periodic table, what color are the nonmetals?
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yellow
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On the periodic table, what color are the metalloids?
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green
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Elements in group 1A except what element are called what?
answer

hydrogen, alkali
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Elements in 2A are called what?
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alkaline earth metals
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List the elements that are considered metalloids?
answer

boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, tellurium, polonium, astantine
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What are the only two elements on the periodic table that are liquids at room temperature?
answer

bromine and mercury
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What do the inner transition metals consist of and are located at the bottom of the table?
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lanthanide and actinide
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What are the elements in the B element position?
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transition metals
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Where are nonmetals located on the periodic table?
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upper right side
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What are generally brittle or gases, or dull looking solids and are poor conductors of heat and electricity?
answer

nonmetals
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What are the highly reactive 7A elements called?
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halogens
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What are the highly nonreactive 8A elects called?
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noble gases
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Which two metalloids are used in computer chips and solar cells?
answer

silicon and germanium
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Atoms of the same what have similar chemical properties why?
answer

group, they have the same number of valence electrons
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What is the only noble gas that has two valence electrons?
answer

helium
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Which groups of elements make up the p block?
answer

3A-8A except Uuq
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Which groups make up the f block?
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inner transition metals
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Which group makes up the s block?
answer

1A and 2A plus hydrogen and helium
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Which groups make up the d block?
answer

transition metals (largest block)
1B-8B and Uuq
question

What is a characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the sample/s composition?
answer

physical property

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