chapters 23 thru 26

question

The artistic movement known as futurism was introduced to Europe by…
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F. T. Marinetti
question

The first technological innovation of the second industrial revolution was with:
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steel
question

Although discovered much earlier, the development of electricity in the late 1800s led to:
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New techniques in the chemical industry; electrification of metropolitan areas; improvements in subway systems; and changes in the living habits of ordinary people
question

By 1914, the largest overseas buyer of food commodities was:
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Great Britain.
question

By the 1860s, _________ were the leading voices for an expanded franchise in many European countries.
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socialist parliamentarians
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Which political party became the model Marxist party in the late nineteenth century?
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German Social Democratic Party
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By the early twentieth century, many European socialists were beginning to doubt some of the core assumptions of Marxist doctrine. In Germany, these “revisionists” were led by:
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Eduard Bernstein.
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By 1884, full rights of citizenship had been extended to all segments of European society with the exception of:
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women.
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In 1903, Emmeline Pankhurst:
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founded the Women’s Social and Political Union.
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The Paris Commune obtained its greatest support from the:
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workers of Paris.
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The Third Republic in France was shaken in 1894 by the “Dreyfus Affair,” which saw the rise of _________ in French society.
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anti-Semitism
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Published in 1903 and 1905, The Protocols of the Learned Elders of Zion:
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was forged by the Russian secret police and detailed a Jewish plot to dominate the world.
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Bismarck enacted several measures concerning national health legislation because:
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he wanted to win the loyalty of the German working class.
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The Kulturkampf of Otto von Bismarck was a campaign waged against the:
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Catholics.
question

For the Russian Tsar Nicholas II, Russification:
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extended the language and culture of Greater Russia over all non-Russian subjects.
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Tsar Alexander II:
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was assassinated in spite of freeing the serfs.
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Irish home rule was debated for many years in the British Parliament and had support from the Irish Parliamentary Party in the last decades of the nineteenth century, but by the end of the century, a more radical position calling for full independence was revived by the militant political organization called the:
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Irish Republican Brotherhood.
question

The revolution of 1905 in Russia was in response to:
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Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War.
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Marxism came to Russia in two forms one based on industrial capitatism known as the Social Democatic Party and the other based on the populist appeal to the peasantry known as the …
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Social Revolutionary Party.
question

As a result of the 1905 revolution, Tsar Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, which:
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guaranteed individual liberties, more liberal franchise for the election of a Duma, and veto powers for the Duma—all of which Nicholas repealed over the next two years.
question

In the late nineteenth century, in the midst of the continued decline of the Ottoman empire, a nationalist movement emerged in Turkey under the guidance of a group calling itself the “Young Turks,” which successfully forced the sultan to establish a constitutional government in 1908. In the following year it deposed the sultan and replaced him with his brother:
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Mohammed V.
question

Evolutionary theories had existed from the time of the ancient Greeks, but the first modern theory of evolution was developed by:
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Charles Darwin.
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Charles Darwin completed the fieldwork that served as the basis for his theories during the time he spent as an unpaid naturalist on an around-the-world voyage aboard the ship:
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H.M.S. Beagle.
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The expression “survival of the fittest” was first used by:
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Herbert Spencer.
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Many Christians were troubled by the implications of the writings of Charles Darwin because those writings:
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showed that the world was governed by random chance and constant, undirected struggle.
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In response to the growing materialism and free thought in the world, Pope Pius IX issued an encyclical entitled:
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Syllabus of Errors.
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The second half of the nineteenth century saw an increase in literacy in northern Europe to _________ of the population.
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85 percent
question

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, culture entered a new era that has been labeled as:
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Modernism.
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Although a few challenges to representational art had occurred earlier, the first significant break emerged in France with the:
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impressionists.
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After the turn of the twentieth century, some artists “sought an antidote to fin-de-siècle malaise” by looking:
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backward, to so-called primitive cultures.
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Although the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary had many ethnic problems within many of its provinces, the most volatile of all was the province of:
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Bosnia.
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In the years preceding World War I, Europe was divided into two groups of nation-states united by treaty. Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were opposed by Russia, France, and Great Britain, who were known collectively as the:
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Triple Entente.
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The assassination of Franz Ferdinand precipitated the “July Crisis” and led to World War I because he was:
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heir to the throne of Austro-Hungary.
question

What was the public motive for Britain’s declaration of war in 1914?
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the German invasion of neutral Belguim
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The nations of Europe, following the assassination at Sarajevo, embarked on five weeks of what has since been characterized as:
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“a tragedy of miscalculation.”
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The German “von Schlieffen Plan” envisioned a:
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sweeping attack through Belgium to defeat the French outside Paris.
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The action that brought the German plan of attack in the West to an end in September 1914 was:
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First Battle of the Marne.
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The German army, in the early days of the war, won a stunning victory over the Russians at the battle of:
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the Masurian Lakes
question

Which of the following best describes the British action at Gallipoli?
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a botched amphibious landing in Turkey that failed to “force” the sea route to Russia
question

World War I saw the first use of many new weapons. One of these, poison gas, was particularly devastating due to its:
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physical and psychological effects.
question

The bloodiest battles of World War I occurred during 1916-1917, with the first of these being fought at:
answer

Verdun
question

Which weapon was considered the best bet to break the stalemate on the Western Front?
answer

tank
question

With so much of the male population of European countries in uniform during the war, women increasingly filled industrial positions from which they had heretofore been excluded. In Britain, these women were collectively dubbed:
answer

Munitionettes
question

To what does the term total war refer?
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the intense commitment of a nation’s whole human and material resources to fighting
question

One of the changes in British society after the war was the availability of birth control, with the first birth-control clinic opened in London in 1921 by:
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Marie Stopes.
question

Although every country fighting in World War I suffered food shortages at various times during the war, Great Britain eventually instituted control by rationing bread in 1917 primarily because:
answer

of German submarine success in sinking Allied shipping.
question

Although all countries involved in the war used propaganda to bolster the morale of their civilian population, what was one unintended consequence?
answer

It became more difficult for any country to accept a fair, nonpunitive peace settlement.
question

Russia had been stunned by early setbacks in 1914, due primarily to problems of equipment, supply, and training. By the end of 1916, it had been brought to the verge of total collapse by:
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a combination of political ineptitude and military defeat.
question

The second Russian revolution in 1917 was led by the:
answer

Bolsheviks.
question

The Bolsheviks were able to ultimately triumph in October 1917 under the leadership of the young, dedicated revolutionary:
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Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov.
question

The Bolsheviks under Lenin attempted to gain widespread support during the summer of 1917 under the slogan:
answer

“Peace, Land, and Bread, Now!”
question

Which Bolshevik leader made the most notable contribution to Lenin’s efforts during the fall of 1917?
answer

Trotsky
question

Which of the following was NOT a major element in the German collapse of November 1918?
answer

the sudden death of Kaiser Wilhelm’s heir
question

During spring 1918, the war changed momentum on the Western Front due to several factors, the most important of which was:
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the Allies’ material advantage finally coming to bear on the Germans.
question

What was the single greatest U.S. contribution to the defeat of German forces on the battlefield in 1918?
answer

the sheer number of U.S. conscripts sent into battle alongside the Allies
question

The entry of the United States into World War I on the side of the Allies was due to several factors; among them were the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by the Germans and the:
answer

interception of the “Zimmerman telegram” sent by Germany’s foreign minister to Mexico.
question

At the Paris Peace Conference beginning in 1919, each of the so-called Big Four was represented by its political leader, with Italy being represented by:
answer

Vittorio Orlando.
question

Although Germany was subjected to many crippling provisions of the Treaty of Versailles, the most dangerous were the punitive reparations, according to the eminent British economist:
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John Maynard Keynes
question

What were the mandates of the Treaty of Versailles?
answer

Territories in the Middle East and former German colonies were to be administered by France and Great Britain.
question

Many in Europe recognized that the end of the war had brought about “a new and unfamiliar world,” but no one knew the form this new world was going to take. As Tomas Masaryk stated, “Postwar Europe was:
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a laboratory atop a graveyard.”
question

Who were the “Whites?”
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royalist opponents of the revolutionary communists in Russia
question

The Bolsheviks won the civil war due in no small measure to the hierarchical, disciplined military machine of 5 million men created by the new commissar of war:
answer

Leon Trotsky.
question

Although Lenin wanted to establish, for the short term, a state-capitalist economic system in Russia that resembled the successful European wartime economies, the necessities of the civil war pushed the government to a more radical economic system known as:
answer

war communism.
question

Having sidelined all his opposition within the Bolshevik party, Stalin solidified his control in 1929 by removing _________ from the ruling Politburo
answer

Nikolai Bukharin
question

To facilitate his policy of collectivization, Stalin moved with particular viciousness against a group of peasants known as:
answer

kulaks.
question

To what does the term gulag refer?
answer

forced-labor camps populated by political prisoners of Stalin’s government
question

How did Mussolini manage the Italian state’s long-standing conflict with the Catholic Church?
answer

by staging a public reconciliation with the Church, including independence for the Vatican in 1929
question

Fascism, as a political form of government developed in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s:
answer

rested on the principles of statism, nationalism, militarism, and an economy that fully supports the government while remaining free.
question

As a result of the economic innovations instituted by Mussolini during the 1920s, Italy’s plight during the Great Depression was:
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no different than any other country in Europe during the 1930s.
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During the unstable period following the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II, many armed bands grew in number and influence. Among them were the Freikorps, who were:
answer

anti-Marxist, anti-Semitic, and antiliberal.
question

The 1919 election in the Weimar Republic resulted in a coalition government of:
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socialists, Catholics, and liberal democrats.
question

What was the Dawes Plan?
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a new system of war reparations for Germany, intended to ease the financial strain
question

Who was/were the SA?
answer

the paramilitary arm of the Nazi party, which engaged in intimidating acts of public violence
question

What was the Night of the Long Knives?
answer

a lethal purge of Hitler’s SA in 1934, killing over a thousand officials he considered too radical
question

Which of the following statements best describes the way Nazi propagandists tried to portray Hitler?
answer

a charismatic leader with magnetic energy who would act as a bulwark against communism and cultural pollution
question

According to Joseph Goebbels in his pamphlet Why Are We Enemies of the Jews, the Nazi party was founded on the twin hatreds of Jews and:
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capitalism.
question

Nazi Germany stressed its legitimacy by fostering traditional German values such as:
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motherhood by their encouragement of women to leave the workplace and assume their proper role as mothers and wives.
question

The first racially motivated policy of Nazi Germany was their law regarding:
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forced sterilization of undesirables.
question

What was the Night of Broken Glass?
answer

a general attack by the SA against Jewish stores and synagogues across Germany in 1938
question

The Nuremberg Decrees of 1935:
answer

deprived Jews of Reich citizenship.
question

During the 1920s, the British and French governments pursued a policy of “deflation” in an attempt to:
answer

stimulate demand for their goods in world markets.
question

The first actions taken by national governments to the threat posed by the Great Depression dealt with:
answer

monetary policy.
question

Under the influence of John Maynard Keynes, the Roosevelt administration instituted policies aimed at getting the country “back on its feet” by first abandoning the:
answer

idea of a balanced budget.
question

The changes in culture in the time between the two world wars affected:
answer

the static arts; architecture; music; literature
question

Despite significant efforts by President Roosevelt and his New Deal to resolve the economic problems of the Great Depression:
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the United States in 1939 still had more unemployed workers than the rest of the world combined.
question

The poet _________ presented a philosophy in his poetry that bordered on despair—life is a living death, to be endured as boredom and frustration
answer

T. S. Eliot
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Artists of the postwar period pushed conventions to new limits. Some, such as the _________, went so far as to reject the very idea of aesthetics.
answer

dadaists
question

The original work in physics that eventually led to the development of the atomic bomb was done by:
answer

Albert Einstein.
question

Which of the following technological innovations became a major tool of political campaigning during the Great Depression?
answer

radio
question

What film by Leni Riefenstahl was a visual hymn to the cultural power of the Nazi regime?
answer

Triumph of the Will
question

The mandate territories were created after World War I:
answer

to add to both the French and the British empires.
question

Several consequences of the Great Depression of the 1930s led to the Second World War. Among these was:
answer

an intensification of economic nationalism.
question

How did Nazi efforts to end the Great Depression in Germany contribute to the militarization of Europe?
answer

through a massive program of rearmament, also intended to reduce unemployment
question

To support the Spanish republican government and to protest the German bombing of a Basque town in April 1937, Pablo Picasso painted:
answer

Guernica.
question

Hitler’s stated objective in the 1930s was to reunite all ethnic Germans inside his “Third German Reich,” and the first move to accomplish this objective was the:
answer

reoccupation of the Rhineland.
question

How did Neville Chamberlain presume that the Munich agreement would satisfy Hitler’s ambitions?
answer

by allowing Hitler to unify all ethnic Germans in one state
question

Due to the memories of World War I, many Western nations were divided in their response to actions taken by fascist and nationalist governments. Some wished to meet such actions with force if necessary, while others wished to negotiate. This second approach is usually referred to as:
answer

appeasement.
question

The Second World War began with the German invasion of Poland on:
answer

September 1, 1939.
question

How did Stalin respond to the settlement at Munich?
answer

by signing a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany
question

To what does the term Blitzkrieg refer?
answer

the sweeping, meticulous use of German armored vehicles and air power to cut apart slower enemy armies
question

How did France ultimately respond to Germany’s stunning early successes in May 1940?
answer

a rapid surrender after six weeks of fighting, followed by the creation of a neutral, right-wing government in the south of France
question

Although France had been defeated by the Germans, it was allowed to establish a subject government in the south of France under the leadership of First World War hero:
answer

Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain.
question

When the war in the West finally did begin in 1940, the Germans nearly destroyed the combined British and French armies, but a great number of the British and French soldiers escaped in a massive evacuation from:
answer

Dunkirk.
question

After a policy of appeasement failed to curb Hitler’s actions on the Continent, the ruling British government was replaced by a coalition under the leadership of:
answer

Winston Churchill.
question

The Soviet Union and Britain invaded a neutral country, _________, in 1941 to prevent Germany from seizing a valuable war resource.
answer

Iran
question

Two naval battles in the Pacific, in which neither side actually sighted the other, marked the extent of Japanese expansion and the turning point of the war in the Pacific. These two battles, occurring within one month of each other, were:
answer

Coral Sea and Midway
question

The strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific campaign consisted of attacking strategic Japanese bases while bypassing some units of the Japanese army and navy, and it was referred to as:
answer

island hopping
question

Having defeated the French the previous year, in 1941, Hitler turned his attention to:
answer

the Balkans
question

The Second World War began in the Pacific when the Japanese attacked the United States at:
answer

Pearl Harbor, the British in Malaya, the French in Indochina, and the Dutch in Indonesia.
question

Although all of western Europe had fallen to German arms by the summer of 1941, Hitler’s ultimate goal lay to the east where he next attacked under the code name “Operation:
answer

Barbarossa.”
question

Which of the following nations saw the spread of popular acts of passive resistance and the covert evacuation of its Jewish population after Nazi occupation?
answer

Denmark
question

To what does the term Untermenschen refer?
answer

It refers to the “subhuman” racial categories of Jews, Gypsies, and Slavs marked for murder by Nazi officials in occupied Europe.
question

Which of the following was the first major effort by the Nazis to “cleanse” conquered territories of “undesirable” populations?
answer

the use of Einsatzgruppen in eastern Europe to “pacify” conquered areas by massacring the Jewish and Gypsy populations of entire towns and regions
question

When Germany invaded Russia, following the front-line troops into the country were military squads charged with dealing with undesirable individuals among the conquered peoples. These squads were called:
answer

Einsatzgruppen.
question

What description best characterizes the Vichy government’s treatment of France’s Jewish population?
answer

selective support of deportation and the passage of sweeping anti-Semitic legislation
question

The turning point in the war in Europe came when the Allies began launching offensives against the Germans beginning after the battle of:
answer

Stalingrad.
question

In the summer of 1943, the largest land battle in history was fought at:
answer

Kursk.
question

At the end of the war in Europe, Adolf Hitler:
answer

committed suicide in his underground bunker in Berlin.
question

Which of the following actions by the Allies caused the highest casualty rates among Japanese civilians?
answer

the mass firebombing of Japanese cities during the summer of 1945
question

The decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan was taken by President Harry S Truman:
answer

against the advice of the scientists, who built the bomb and believed that it ought not to be used without prior warning and a demonstration.

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