Chapters 11&12

question

A patient has a tissue growth that was diagnosed as cancer. Which of the following growth types could it be?
answer

Neoplasm
question

Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin are referred to as:
answer

cancer in situ.
question

A 25-year-old male develops a tumor of the breast glandular tissue. This type of tumor is classified as a(n):
answer

adenocarcinoma.
question

A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer. Testing reveals that the cancer cells have spread to local lymph nodes. This cancer would be stage:
answer

3.
question

A 52-year-old male with hepatitis C recently developed hepatic cancer. Which of the following markers should be increased?
answer

Alpha-fetoprotein
question

Presence of telomere caps gives cancer cells:
answer

immortality.
question

A child develops retinoblastoma. Which of the following must have occurred?
answer

Mutations in the rb gene occurred in both copies of the gene.
question

A 45-year-old female was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. She reports a sexual history that includes 43 partners. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her cancer?
answer

Human papilloma virus
question

Which of the following factors is necessary for local tumor spread?
answer

Increased cellular motility
question

The most common route of metastasis is through the:
answer

lymphatics.
question

A 50-year-old female develops skin cancer on her head and neck following years of sunbathing. Which of the following cancers is the most likely?
answer

Basal cell carcinoma
question

Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?
answer

Alcohol
question

Physical activity was shown to reduce the risk of which of the following types of cancer?
answer

Colon
question

A 65-year-old male was recently diagnosed with cancer. He is retired from construction work. Which of the following cancers is he likely to develop secondary to occupational hazards?
answer

Mesothelioma
question

Indoor pollution is considered worse than outdoor pollution because of cigarette smoke and:
answer

radon.
question

A water test recently revealed arsenic levels above 200 mg/L. Which of the following cancers would be most likely to develop in those who consistently drank the water?
answer

Skin
question

Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in people with cancer cause:
answer

a diabetes-like syndrome.
question

Individuals with cancer are often at risk for infections because of:
answer

leukopenia.
question

Which of the following is the most significant cause of complications and death in cancer patients?
answer

Infection
question

A 75-year-old male was recently diagnosed with prostate cancer. The cancer had not metastasized upon diagnosis. Which of the following factors would most predispose this patient to infection?
answer

Age
question

To be curative, chemotherapy must eradicate:
answer

enough cancer cells so that the body’s own defenses can kill any remaining cells.
question

Biologic response modifiers are a form of:
answer

immunotherapy
question

A 50-year-old male discovers a mass growing in his mouth. A biopsy reveals that the mass is benign. Which of the following treatments would most likely be recommended?
answer

Surgical removal
question

Gastrointestinal alterations, such as nausea and mucosal erosions, are common side effects of chemotherapy treatment because:
answer

chemotherapy agents target rapidly dividing cells in the oral and intestinal linings.
question

A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer and put on chemotherapy treatment. Which of the following would help to relieve some of the side effects?
answer

Red cell transfusion
question

A patient has a tissue growth that was diagnosed as cancer. Which of the following growth types could it be?
answer

Neoplasm
question

Which feature is characteristic of malignant tumor?
answer

Has a high mitotic index
question

The process by which a cell acquires specific new observable characteristics is:
answer

differentiation
question

Preinvasive epithelial tumors of glandular or squamous cell origin are referred to as:
answer

cancer in situ
question

A 25-year-old male develops a tumor of the breast glandular tissue. This type of tumor is classified as a(n):
answer

adenocarcinoma
question

A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer. Testing reveals that the cancer cells have spread to local lymph nodes. This cancer would be stage:
answer

3
question

When a cancer cell loses differentiation, _____ has occurred
answer

Anaplasia
question

A physician is attempting to diagnose cancer and is looking for a tumor marker. Which of the following could be a possible marker?
answer

Enzymes
question

A 52-year-old male with hepatitis C recently developed hepatic cancer. Which of the following markers should be increased?
answer

Alpha-fetoprotein
question

The best explanation for higher rates of cancer in older populations is:
answer

the development of cancer requires several mutations over time
question

In cancer, angiogenic factors stimulate:
answer

new blood vessel growth
question

Presence of telomere caps gives cancer cells:
answer

immortality
question

A proto-oncogene is best defined as:
answer

a normal gene
question

Of the following genetic lesions that cause cancer, which is the most common?
answer

Point mutations
question

A child develops retinoblastoma. Which of the following must have occurred?
answer

Mutations in the rb gene occurred in both copies of the gene
question

A 50-year-old female develops skin cancer. One potential reason for development of this condition is:
answer

mutation of caretaker genes
question

A 45-year-old female was recently diagnosed with cervical cancer. She reports a sexual history that includes 43 partners. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her cancer?
answer

Human papilloma virus
question

A 30-year-old American male with HIV is diagnosed with Epstein-Barr virus. After 2 months, the virus is still active. What is the concern for this patient?
answer

Development of B cell lymphoma
question

A 45-year-old male presents with persistent, severe stomach pain. Testing reveals a peptic ulcer. Further laboratory tests reveal the presence of Helicobacter pylori. Which of the following is of concern for this patient?
answer

Gastric cancer
question

A 40-year-old female was diagnosed with colorectal cancer, for which she refused treatment. Four years later she returned to her physician. Testing revealed that the cancer had metastasized to the:
answer

liver
question

Which of the following factors is necessary for local tumor spread?
answer

Increased cellular motility
question

The most common route of metastasis is through the:
answer

lymphatics
question

The most important environmental risk factor for cancer is exposure to:
answer

cigarette smoke
question

Chromosome aberrations and mutations in cells not directly irradiated are referred to as:
answer

bystander effects
question

A 50-year-old female develops skin cancer on her head and neck following years of sunbathing. Which of the following cancers is the most likely?
answer

Basal cell carcinoma
question

A 50-year-old female develops breast and colorectal cancers. Which of the following dietary factors most likely would have increased her risk for developing these cancers?
answer

Alcohol Intake
question

A 25-year-old nursing student recently learned how diet can alter the chances of developing cancer. He tries to minimize his risks of developing the disease by ordering his steak:
answer

rare
question

Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking?
answer

Alcohol
question

A 25-year-old female was diagnosed with cervical cancer. History reveals she had many sexual partners, which she indicates is “too many to count.” Which of the following is most likely to have caused her cancer?
answer

HPV
question

Physical activity was shown to reduce the risk of which of the following types of cancer?
answer

Colon
question

A 65-year-old male was recently diagnosed with cancer. He is retired from construction work. Which of the following cancers is he likely to develop secondary to occupational hazards?
answer

Mesothelioma
question

Indoor pollution is considered worse than outdoor pollution because of cigarette smoke and:
answer

radon
question

A water test recently revealed arsenic levels above 200 ug/L. Which of the following cancers would be most likely to develop in those who consistently drank the water?
answer

Skin
question

The most frequently reported symptom of cancer and cancer treatment is:
answer

fatigue
question

A 50-year-old female is suffering from anorexia, anemia, asthenia, weight loss, and altered metabolism resulting in malnutrition. She was previously diagnosed with cancer. Which of the following describes her symptoms?
answer

Cachexia
question

Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in people with cancer cause:
answer

a diabetes-like syndrome
question

Individuals with cancer are often at risk for infections because of:
answer

leukopenia
question

Which of the following is the most significant cause of complications and death in cancer patients?
answer

Infection
question

A 75-year-old male was recently diagnosed with prostate cancer. The cancer had not metastasized upon diagnosis. Which of the following factors would most predispose this patient to infection?
answer

Age
question

To be curative, chemotherapy must eradicate:
answer

enough cancer cells so that the body’s own defenses can kill any remaining cells
question

A 15-year-old female is diagnosed with melanoma. Which of the following treatments would most likely be used first?
answer

Immunotherapy
question

Adjuvant chemotherapy treatment is used:
answer

after surgical removal of a tumor
question

Biologic response modifiers are a form of:
answer

immunotherapy
question

All of the following represent goals of radiation therapy except:
answer

to replace chemotherapy
question

A 50-year-old male discovers a mass growing in his mouth. A biopsy reveals that the mass is benign. Which of the following treatments would most likely be recommended?
answer

Surgical removal
question

Gastrointestinal alterations, such as nausea and mucosal erosions, are common side effects of chemotherapy treatment because:
answer

chemotherapy agents target rapidly dividing cells in the oral and intestinal linings
question

A 30-year-old female is diagnosed with cancer and put on chemotherapy treatment. Which of the following would help to relieve some of the side effects?
answer

Red cell transfusion
question

The most important environmental risk factor for Cancer is: a.exposure to UV radiation b.Radon c.Estrogen d.Cigarette smoke
answer

d.Cigarette smoke
question

Which feature is characteristic of malignant tumor? a.Grows slowly b.Has a well- defined capsule c.Has a high mitotic index d.Is well differentiated
answer

c.Has a high mitotic index
question

The process by which a cell acquires new observable characteristics is: a.Commitment b.Differentiation c.Commutation d.Consanguinities
answer

b.Differentiation
question

When a cancer cell loses differentiation, _____ has occurred. a.Autonomy b.Anaplasia c.Plemorphic d.Metastasis
answer

b.Anaplasia
question

The best explanation of higher rates of cancer in older population is: a.Aging cells are more susceptible to mutation b.The development of cancer requires several mutations overtime c.Older individuals have higher rates of tobacco use d.The elderly show increased rates of apoptosis
answer

b.The development of cancer requires several mutations overtime
question

The most common route of metastasis is through the: a.Arteries b.Body cavities c.Lymphatics d.Connective tissues
answer

c.Lymphatics
question

Which of the following compounds has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with smoking? a.Alcohol b.Steroids c.Antihistamines d.Antidepressants
answer

a.Alcohol
question

The most frequent reported symptom of cancer in cancer treatment is: a.Fatigue b.Anorexia c.Pain d.Weight loss
answer

a.Fatigue
question

To be curative, chemotherapy must eradicate: a.All of the tumor cells b.All of the cycling cells c.All of the cells not cycling d.Enough cancer cells so that the body’s own defenses can kill any remaining cells
answer

d.Enough cancer cells so that the body’s own defenses can kill any remaining cells
question

The movement of blood into and out of the capillary beds of the lungs to the body organs and tissues is called: a.Perfusion b.Ventilation c.Diffusion d.Active transport
answer

a.Perfusion
question

A 42-year old male was involved in a motor vehicle accident during which he suffered a severe head injury. He dies shortly after the accident from loss of respiration. The area of the brain most likely involved is the: a.Cerebral cortex b.Thalamus c.Basal ganglia d.Brain stem
answer

d.Brain stem
question

A 30- year old received a severe head injury in a motor vehicle accident. She is now experiencing respiratory abnormalities characterized by alternating periods of deep and shallow breathing. This condition is referred to as: a.Cheyenne stokes b.Frank starling c.Apnea d.Orthopnea
answer

a.Cheyenne stokes
question

50 year old male who smokes has lung cancer. He was exposed to air pollution, asbestos, and radiation at work. Which of the following most likely had greatest impact on development of cancer? a. Radiation b. Cigarette smoke c. Asbestos d. Air pollution
answer

b. Cigarette smoke
question

Which of the following factors plays a role in organ tropism? a. Preferential adherence to the surface of certain target cells b. Presence of certain growth factors or hormones c. Presence of chemotactic factors d. All of the above
answer

d. All of the above
question

Which of the following mutational routes is necessary to cause cancer with a tumor suppressor gene mutation? a. Point deletion on one chromosome b. Chromosomal translocation c. Gene amplification d. Deletion of both copies of a tumor suppressor gene
answer

d. Deletion of both copies of a tumor suppressor gene
question

Viruses are associated with all of the following cancers except: a. lung cancer. b. Kaposi sarcoma. c. lymphoma. d. liver cancer.
answer

a. lung cancer.
question

Which of the following is an effective treatment for cancer-related or chemotherapy-related anemia? a. Exercise b. Chemotherapy c. Erythropoietin d. Calcium and magnesium supplements
answer

c. Erythropoietin
question

Survival from breast cancer is directly correlated to the: a. number of involved lymph nodes. b. amount of seeding in the peritoneal cavity. c. amount of pain an individual incurs. d. degree of nausea and vomiting side effects from chemotherapy.
answer

a. number of involved lymph nodes.
question

Local tissue invasion by a tumor is accomplished by which of the following mechanisms? a. Release of cytokines by the tumor cells, which kills surrounding cells b. Release of lytic enzymes by the tumor cells, which causes tissue degradation c. Release of antibodies by the tumor cells, which enhances phagocytosis of surrounding tissue d. Release of free radicals by the tumor cells, which damages surrounding tissue
answer

b. Release of lytic enzymes by the tumor cells, which causes tissue degradation
question

Which of the following statements about alcohol intake and cancer risk is true? a. Alcohol intake is linked to the development of liver cancer only. b. Alcohol intake increases the development of smoking-related cancers. c. Moderate amounts of alcohol intake protect against breast and colon cancer. d. Alcohol acts as an antioxidant, resulting in liver cancer.
answer

b. Alcohol intake increases the development of smoking-related cancers.
question

Autotoxin release by cancer cells stimulates: a. cell division. b. apoptosis of normal cells. c. motility. d. release of lysosomal enzymes.
answer

c. motility.
question

A tumor that has distant lymph node involvement but no evidence of distant metastasis to other tissues is classified as: a. Stage I. b. Stage II. c. Stage III. d. Stage IV.
answer

c. Stage III.
question

In normal cells, the glycoprotein fibronectin: a. is a self vs. non-self antigenic marker. b. acts as a receptor for growth factors. c. activates the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin. d. helps adhere neighboring cells to each other.
answer

d. helps adhere neighboring cells to each other.
question

The extension of cancer to distant tissues and organs is called: a. apoptosis. b. tropism. c. metastasis. d. malignancy.
answer

c. metastasis.
question

Cancer cells ensure adequate supply of oxygen and nutrients by releasing: a. autocrine growth factors. b. lysosomal enzymes. c. telomerase. d. angiogenic factors.
answer

d. angiogenic factors.
question

Alterations in carbohydrate metabolism in people with cancer causes: a. hypoglycemia. b. depressed carbohydrate absorption. c. weight gain. d. a diabetes-like syndrome.
answer

d. a diabetes-like syndrome.
question

Determining the size of the tumor, the degree of node involvement, and the extent of distant metastasis is called: a. categorization. b. staging. c. factoring. d. processing.
answer

b. staging.
question

Which of the following factors is necessary for metastasis to occur? a. Decreased cellular motility b. Decreased cell adhesions c. Temporary cessation of cell division d. Proximity to body cavities
answer

b. Decreased cell adhesions
question

Malignant tumors have a tendency to: a. grow rapidly. b. metastasize to distant tissues. c. invade surrounding tissues. d. all of the above.
answer

d. all of the above.
question

Which of the following factors plays a role in the development of cancer from viral and bacterial infections? a. Inflammatory chemicals cause damage to DNA. b. Growth factors are released during the resulting inflammation. c. Cells divide more frequently to replace damaged tissue. d. All of the above factors play a role.
answer

d. All of the above factors play a role.
question

How does radiation therapy provide an effective means for treating some forms of cancer? a. Ionizing radiation damages the cancer cell’s DNA. b. Heat generated by radiation is thermally toxic to cancer cells. c. The resulting inflammatory response destroys the tumor. d. High-energy waves cause cell membrane injury.
answer

a. Ionizing radiation damages the cancer cell’s DNA.
question

Cancer-causing mutations of a proto-oncogene result in: a. apoptosis. b. increased cell division. c. production of monoclonal antibodies. d. decreased cell responsiveness to growth factors.
answer

b. increased cell division.
question

Which of the following viruses has been implicated in the development of cervical cancer? a. Herpes virus b. HIV c. Epstein-Barr virus d. Human papilloma virus
answer

d. Human papilloma virus
question

Neuromuscular dysfunction and the release of inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 are thought to be responsible for which of the following manifestations of cancer? a. Cachexia b. Thrombocytopenia c. Metastasis d. Fatigue
answer

d. Fatigue
question

Which of the following cell populations do chemotherapeutic agents primarily target? a. All cells b. Cancer cells only c. Cells that are incapable of mitosis d. All rapidly dividing cells
answer

d. All rapidly dividing cells
question

Pharmacologic therapies for pain management include all of the following except: a. local anesthesia. b. beta receptor blockers. c. anti-inflammatory agents. d. opioids.
answer

b. beta receptor blockers.
question

Mechanisms that cause cancer pain include all of the following except: a. Pressure on tissues and nerve endings b. Metastases to bone c. Cancer cells residing in lymph nodes d. Release of pain-inducing chemicals
answer

c. Cancer cells residing in lymph nodes
question

Seeding involves the spread of cancer cells to: a. blood vessels. b. serous membranes of body cavities. c. fascia surrounding muscles and bones. d. dermis and subcutaneum of the skin.
answer

b. serous membranes of body cavities.
question

After cancer cells metastasize into lymphatic vessels, which of the following events occurs? a. Cancer cells are killed by immune cells in the lymph nodes. b. Cancer cells lodge in the lymph node and proliferate. c. Cancer cells continue past the lymph nodes to distant organ sites. d. All of the above can occur.
answer

d. All of the above can occur.
question

Major causes of fatigue related to cancer and cancer therapy listed by the National Cancer Institute include all of the following except: a. chronic stress. b. disordered sleep. c. immunosuppression. d. metabolic disturbances.
answer

c. immunosuppression.
question

A proto-oncogene is best defined as: a. a normal gene. b. a frameshift mutation. c. an inactive gene. d. a tumor-suppressor gene.
answer

a. a normal gene.
question

Which of the following alterations in metabolism is often present in people with cancer? a. Increased basic metabolic rate b. Decreased fat breakdown c. Increased anabolism d. Overproduction of protei
answer

a. Increased basic metabolic rate
question

Which of the following is a typical characteristic of benign tumors? a. Cells in the tumor are undifferentiated. b. Benign tumors are surrounded by a capsule. c. Benign tumors have a tendency to invade surrounding tissue. d. Cells in the tumor occasionally metastasize to lymph nodes.
answer

b. Benign tumors are surrounded by a capsule
question

The process of triggering new blood vessel formation in a tumor is called: a. erythropoiesis. b. atherosclerosis. c. angiogenesis. d. seeding
answer

c. angiogenesis.
question

Anticipatory nausea related to cancer treatment is caused by: a. fear of impending chemotherapy treatment. b. central nervous system effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. c. gastrointestinal tract toxicity. d. constipation and diarrhea.
answer

a. fear of impending chemotherapy treatment.
question

Obesity is an important risk factor for all of the following cancers except: a. breast cancer. b. leukemia. c. colon cancer. d. esophageal cancer.
answer

b. leukemia.
question

Immortality in cancer cells is obtained through the production of: a. growth factors. b. apoptosis signals. c. telomerase. d. tumor markers
answer

c. telomerase.
question

Chronic active hepatitis B infection is a risk factor for developing which of the following types of cancer? a. Lung b. Leukemia c. Pancreas d. Liver
answer

d. Liver
question

Which of the following is not a typical characteristic of cancer cells? a. Loss of cellular self-destruct mechanis b. Unlimited replication c. Autocrine stimulation d. Decreased responsiveness to growth signals
answer

d. Decreased responsiveness to growth signals
question

The most commonly reported symptom in individuals with cancer is: a. fatigue. b. anorexia. c. nausea. d. depression.
answer

a. fatigue.
question

Hair loss from chemotherapy treatment is condition known as: a. folliculitis. b. alopecia. c. erythema. d. sterility.
answer

b. alopecia.
question

The wasting syndrome associated with cancer and cancer treatment is called: a. cachexia. b. anemia. c. Cushing syndrome. d. anabolism.
answer

a. cachexia.
question

The less differentiated a cancer cell is, the more: a. benign it will be. b. embryonic it will appear. c. similar it will appear to its tissue of origin. d. all of the above.
answer

b. embryonic it will appear.
question

Which of the following modes of treatment is not used to eradicate cancer? a. Immunotherapy b. Blood transfusions c. Hormone therapy d. Surgery
answer

b. Blood transfusions
question

Cachexia is a syndrome that includes all of the following symptoms except: a. anorexia. b. weight loss. c. dyspnea. d. weakness and fatigue.
answer

c. dyspnea.
question

In order for a tumor cell to invade tissues, it must attach to laminin in the: a. basement membrane. b. endothelium. c. collagenous matrix. d. blood.
answer

a. basement membrane.
question

Leukopenia from cancer or chemotherapy treatment increases an individual’s risk for: a. allergic reactions. b. autoimmune disease. c. bleeding. d. infection.
answer

d. infection.
question

The process of cancer cells entering into blood vessels is called: a. tropism. b. embolism. c. intravasation. d. angiogenesis.
answer

c. intravasation.
question

The normal function of tumor suppressor genes in an individual without cancer is to: a. prevent apoptosis. b. control production of anti-growth signals. c. stimulate cell replication. d. prevent cancer-causing mutations.
answer

b. control production of anti-growth signals.
question

Sarcomas are cancers that arise from: a. connective tissues. b. glandular tissues. c. epithelial tissues. d. germ cells.
answer

a. connective tissues.
question

Apart from diminished physical energy, cancer-related fatigue can manifest in which of the following ways? a. Diminished intellectual performance b. Muscle weakness c. Mood changes d. All of the above
answer

d. All of the above
question

Cervical carcinoma in situ: a. usually progresses to cervical cancer even after treatment. b. contains cancer cells that have not invaded the surrounding tissue. c. refers to cervical cancer that has metastasized to the liver. d. cannot be detected using available medical tests.
answer

b. contains cancer cells that have not invaded the surrounding tissue.
question

Tumor markers can be found in: a. blood. b. cerebrospinal fluid. c. urine. d. all of the above.
answer

d. all of the above.
question

As a tumor grows, it exerts mechanical pressure on surrounding tissues, which results in: a. cellular swelling. b. ischemia. c. metastasis. d. extravasation.
answer

b. ischemia.
question

Tumor cell markers can be used to: a. screen individuals for cancer. b. diagnose tumor type. c. follow the clinical course of tumor development. d. all of the above.
answer

d. all of the above.
question

One way that a tumor suppressor gene can become inactivated in the absence of mutation or deletion is through gene: a. silencing. b. splicing. c. amplification. d. translocation.
answer

a. silencing.
question

All of the following dietary substances are known carcinogens except: a. fiber. b. polyunsaturated fats. c. charbroiled beef. d. nitrates (nitrosamines).
answer

a. fiber.
question

Kwashiorkor is a form of malnutrition arising from a diet poor in: a. calories. b. fat. c. carbohydrate. d. protein.
answer

d. protein.
question

Anemia in individuals with cancer can be the result of all of the following except: a. decreased erythropoietin. b. chronic bleeding. c. fatigue. d. malignant cells in the bone marrow.
answer

c. fatigue.
question

Radon exposure increases an individual’s risk for which of the following cancers? a. Pancreatic b. Esophageal c. Lung d. Skin
answer

c. Lung
question

Individual response to pain depends on which of the following factors? a. Cultural b. Psychologic c. Physiologic d. All of the above
answer

d. All of the above
question

Which of the following cancers always arises from an initial mutation in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow? a. Lymphoma b. Carcinoma c. Leukemia d. Sarcoma
answer

c. Leukemia
question

Which of the following risk factors is associated with the development of lung, bladder, pancreatic, renal, laryngeal, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancer? a. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation b. Radon c. Tobacco use d. Asbestos
answer

c. Tobacco use
question

Referring to cancer, the term anaplasia means: a. loss of cellular differentiation. b. rapid growth of cells. c. independence from normal cellular controls. d. ectopic production of hormones.
answer

a. loss of cellular differentiation.
question

The term used to describe an aggregation of cancer cells that accumulates faster than its non-mutant neighbors is clonal: a. selection. b. stimulation. c. expansion. d. reunification.
answer

c. expansion.
question

Helicobacter pylori infection is a bacterial cause of: a. lymphoma. b. colon cancer. c. gastric cancer. d. bladder cancer.
answer

c. gastric cancer.
question

Oral ulcers caused by chemotherapy or radiation therapy is a condition known as: a. stomatitis. b. candidiasis. c. impetigo. d. decubitus ulceration.
answer

a. stomatitis.
question

Normally, the tumor suppressor gene p53 induces: a. apoptosis. b. secretion of anti-growth factors. c. the formation of oncogenes. d. telomere activity.
answer

a. apoptosis.
question

Which of the following genetic events is capable of activating oncogenes? a. Deletion b. Loss of heterozygosity c. Amplification d. All of the above
answer

c. Amplification
question

Cancers in the abdominopelvic cavity, such as ovarian and colorectal cancers, tend to first metastasize to the: a. liver. b. bladder. c. brain. d. axillary lymph nodes.
answer

a. liver.
question

Exposure to ionizing radiation is linked to all of the following cancers except: a. leukemia. b. thyroid cancer. c. breast cancer. d. skin cancer.
answer

d. skin cancer.
question

Which of the following statements about cancer pain is false? a. Non-pharmacologic therapies such as meditation and relaxation are ineffective for cancer pain management. b. Most patients with cancer experience pain early in the disease process. c. Cancer pain management requires a multimodal and multidisciplinary approach. d. When first diagnosed with cancer, many individuals say that severe pain is their biggest fear.
answer

b. Most patients with cancer experience pain early in the disease process.

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