Chapters 1-3.2 Essay

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____is always conserved in chemical reactions.
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mass
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All matter consists of tiny particles constantly _____.
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in motion
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____are packed closely together, vibrate back and forth in place, particles form a regular pattern.
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solids
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_____are randomly arranged; fluid, particles move past each each other.
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liquids
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____is when particles move rapidly and the volume is equal to the container.
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gas
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The higher the temperature, what happens to the motion of the particles?
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when the temperature is higher, the particles move faster
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Increased temperature corresponds to faster and faster motions of atoms and molecules which is what causes ______.
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change of state
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_____have a fixed compostion and CANNOT separated.
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pure substances
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What is a mixture made of?
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two or more substances
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A_____mixture can be separated.
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heterogenerous
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A_____mixture cannot be separated.
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homogeneous
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What is an example of a heterogenous mixture?
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milk, sand
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What is an example of a homogenous mixture?
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gasoline, air
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A ____is composed of only one type of atom.
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element
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A_____is the smallest particle of an element that retains the original properties of the element.
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atom
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A______is a pure substance held together by chemical bonds.
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chemical compound
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What happens when an element joins a compound?
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it loses its original properties and takes on the properties of the compound
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What is the difference between a mixture of elements and a chemical compound of 2 or more elements?
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a compound has different characteristics from its parent elements and has a definite percentage mass composition of its combining elements
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____are electrically charges atoms or groups of atoms.
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ions
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_____are the smallest units that retian the characterstics of the compound?
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molecules
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The composition of a compound is represented by its _____.
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chemical formula
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Properties that can be observed without changing the composition of the substance are called_____>
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physical properties
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What are ten common physical properties?
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-color
-state of matter
-melting point
-boiling point
-density
-solubility
-electric conductivity
-malleability
-ductility
-viscosity
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What is the formula for density?
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density=mass/volume
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AS temperature increases, what happens to the density of water? Which is more dense: water or ice?
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As the temperature increases, density of water increases. So water is more dense than ice
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What is does it mean if a property is extensive?
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it depends on the amount of a substance
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What does it mean to be an intensive property?
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intensive properties do not depend on the amount of a substance; ice will always melt at 0 degrees celsius no matter if you have an ice cube or an iceberg
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Is density an intensive or extensive property? Why?
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density of an object is an intensive property. No matter how much of it you have, the desnity will always be the same
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When the identity of a substance stays the same even if teh physical state, size, or shape has changed then a _____has occured.
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physical change
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A _____is one or more substances )reactants) are transformed into one or more different substances (products)
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chemical change
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Whether or not a material will undergo a chemical change with another property is called a _____.
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chemical property
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What is the lowest temperature on the Kelvin scale?
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0 K
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How many Kelvins are in 0 degrees Celsius?
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0 degrees Celsius=273.15 Kelvins
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How do you convert from degrees Celsius to Kelvin?
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add 273.15 to the temperature in Celsius
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How do you convert from Kelvins to degrees Celsius?
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subtract 273.15 from the value in K
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1 Liter is equivalent to how many centimeters cubed and how many meters cubed?
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1000 centimeters cubed and 0.001 meters cubed
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How many Liters are in one milliliter?
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1 mL= 0.001 Liters
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1 milliliter is equivalent to how many cubic centimeters
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1 mL=1 cubic centimeter
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1 calorie= how many joules
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1 calorie=4.184 joules
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Describe the difference between precision and accuracy
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Precision is when you are throwing darts and they are all hitting in just about the same place. Accuracy is when the darts hit the accurate position
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How do you calculate percent error?
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error in measurement/accepted value X 100 percent
the error in the measurement=experimentally determined value-accepted value
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How many sig figs are in 2.50?
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3
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how many sig figs are in 13000?
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2 sig figs
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How many sig figs are in 13000. ?
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5
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When you are adding and subtracting, how many significant figures should be in your final answer?
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whatever number in the problem has the least number of decimal places will be your answer
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When you are multiplying and dividing, how many significant figures should be in your final answer?
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whatever number in the problem has the least significant figures
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how many sig figs are in 2.340?
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4
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How many millimeters are in one centimeter?
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10
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HOw many milligrams are in 1 gram?
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1000 milligrams
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Teh number of electrons is _____to the number of protons
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equal to
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Teh atomic number is equivalent to ____.
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the number of protons
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HOw many grams are in 1 atomic mass unit?
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1.661 x 10^24
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What is the mass number equivalent to?
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mass number=sum of protons and neutrons
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When doing the zaX thing…what is the set up?
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z=atomic number (protons) which is on the bottom. a=mass number which is the number of protons and neutrons which is on the top. X=the elemental symbol which is on the right. Learn how to input this on web assign
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_____are atoms with the same atomic number but different mass numbers (same number of protons, different number of neutrons)
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istopes
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How do you calculate the percent abundance?
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number of atoms of a given isotope/total number of atoms of all isotopes of that number x 100% (review this online and on pg. 57)
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How do you calculate atomic weight?
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((%abundance isotope 1)/100)(mass of isotope 1) + ((%abundance isotope 2)/100)(mass of isotope 2)….
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Atomic weight of an element is always closer to the mass of the _____>
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most abundant isotope or isotopes.
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What are four properties of metals?
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solid at room temp (except mercury), ductile, malleable, forms alloys
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What does ductile mean?
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can be drawn into wires
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What does malleable mean?
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can be rolled into sheets
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Can nonmetals conduct electricity?
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can’t conduct electricity
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Describe the Group 1A elements.
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alkali metals (except H), very reactive, only found in compounds (such as NaCl)
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What is the name for Group 2A elements?
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alkaline earth metals
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Elements that exist in many different forms are called?
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allotropes
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What are four properties of Group 7A elements?
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all exist as diatomic molecules; called halogens; very reactive; react with alkali metals
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Name two properties of Group 8A elements.
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least reactive; noble gases (inert gases)
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What are the two most abundant elements in Earth’s crust?
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oxygen (nonmetal); aluminum (metal)
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What is a cation and what causes it?
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positively charged ion; loss of an electron
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What is an anion and what causes it?
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negatively charged ion; caused by a gain of an electron; A-Negative-ION
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With ____, atoms are written with the product. With_____, atoms are written with the the equation as reactants.
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cations; anions
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____generally lose electrons to become cations. ____generally gain electrons to become anions.
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metals; nonmetals
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Metals in group 1A-3A form _____and have a charge equal to_____.
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positive ions; group number
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review your notes and class notes
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Do transition metals form cations or anions?
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cations
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Non metals often form ions with a charge equal to?
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the group number-8
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In writing formulas of ionic compounds, the symbol of the ____is given first then the _____.
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cation first then anion (the anion is negative—negative gets in trouble, if you get in trouble you come second for pizza)
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____gains 2 electrons to form the anion o^2-
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oxygen
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naming cations—how would you name aluminum Al^3+
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aluminum cation
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IF you are naming a monoatomic anion, what do you do?
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add -ide to the stem of the nonmetal element
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How do you indicate a charge on a transition metal cation?
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a roman numeral included in the name
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What are four properties of ionic compounds?
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held in place, high melting point, hard solids, made up of a metal and a nonmetal
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What are two properties of molecular compounds?
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can be gases, liquids, or solids; mostly nonmetals
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How do you find the molar mass of a compound?
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find the atomic mass for each element in the compound and add them together
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______is the burning of fuel in oxygen.
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combustion
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How many atoms are in 1 mol?
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6.022×10^23
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How do you determine the formula weight?
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multiply the number of atoms (subscript) by the atom’s atomic weight
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How do you find percent composition of Hydrogen in C4H10
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figure out the molecular weight for the entire compound. Multiply 4 by carbons weight and then 10 by hydrogen’s weight. Divide hydrogen’s weight by the total formula weight of the compound and multiply that number by 100. If you want to find carbon’s percent composition just subtract what you get for hydrogen from 100
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Do isotopes have the same or different mass of their original element?
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different
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What are the three forms of carbon? What is it called when one element comes in multiple forms?
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graphite, diamond, buckyballs; alotropes
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Do ionic compounds have molecules?
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no
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The atomic mass of any element in grams is also equal to_____which is also equal to______.
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1 mole of atoms of the element and 6.022×10^23 atoms of the element
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1 mole of carbon=_____grams of carbon=______atoms of Carbon
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12.01 (atomic mass); 6.02×10^23
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What is the difference between formula weight and molecular weight? These two things are also equivalent to_____.
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no difference, they are calculated the same exact way. Formula weight is used for ionic compounds. Molecular weight is used for molecular compounds; equivalent to molar mass
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The_____represents the smallest whole number ratio of atoms present in the compound.
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empirical
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The_____represents the actual numbers of atoms of each element present in a molecule of the compound.
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molecular formula
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What comes first in the chemical formula?
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the cation, then the anion
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1 atomic mass unit=mass of_____=mass of_____
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proton; neutron
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What does E=mc^2 represent?
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Einstein’s theory of relativity; Energy=mass x (speed of light)^2
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What is an alloy?
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mixture of 2 or more metals
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How do you change states?
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adding energy (heating); removing energy (cooling)
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What is sublimation?
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when a solid changes to a gas
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What is condensation?
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when a gas changes to a liquid
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Are leading zeroes significant?
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no
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When are trailing zeroes significant?
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if a decimal point is present
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In mulitiplication and division, how many significant figures should be in the answer?
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the smallest number of sig figs of the multipliers
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must have _____when balancing equations!
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whole numbers
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HOw do you convert from degrees F to degrees C?
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deduct 32, multiply by 5, then add 9
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how do you convert from celsius to farenheit?
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multiply by 9, divide by 5, add 32

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