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Chapter One Religions 110B

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Literally, the word religion means
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Connect again.
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A common element often found in religions is
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feelings of wonder
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the prophetic orientation in religion emphasizes
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beliefs and moral codes
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The early anthropologist who saw religions rooted in the belief in spirits and the worship of them was
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James Frazer
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Sigmund Freud, when analyzing the origin of religion, emphasized
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the human need for psychological security
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The desciple of Freud who ultimately rebelled against him
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Carl Jung
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Wilhelm Schmidt, an Austrian philologist, argued that humans originally believed in
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one god.
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Belief in many gods
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poloytheism
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Belief in one god
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monotheism
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A mystical orientation is characterized by
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the seeking of a union with something greater than oneself
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A sacramental orientation is characterized by
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the belief that certain rituals and ceremonies help one achieve salvation
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A universal religious symbol that is circular, or blends a circle and a square, is called a
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mandala
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The prophetic orientation is particularly strong in
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Protestant Christianity
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Pantheism is the belief that
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all reality is divine
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One religion that particularly values and makes use of silence is
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Zen Buddhism
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One name of an early female deity
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Astarte
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In religious studies, the word \”myth\” means
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A story that is psychologically meaningful and may be either historically true or not
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Literally, \”philosophy\” in Greek means
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love of wisdom
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A Dutch Reformed Church clergyman who left his religious calling for painting
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Vincent Van Gogh
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Among the many reasons for religions, they exist to help people
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deal with the certainty of death
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Literally, psychology means
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study of the soul
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What psychologist saw religion as a way for people to find their fulfillment as unique individuals, a process he called \”individuation\”?
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Carl Jung
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The approach that especially makes use of reason to find answers to religious questions is
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philosophy
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The conception of time that emphasizes a creation and a cosmic purpose is usually
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Linear
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That area of investigation that looks for and interprets religious evidence in ancient sites, buildings, and objects is
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Archeology
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Literally, \”theology\” means
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study of the divine
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The French thinker who recognized extraordinary structural similarities in stories told by tribal peoples of the Americas was
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Claud Levi-Strauss
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The French thinker who sought to go behind and beyond ordinary interpretations, to in essence \”deconstruct\” texts and other phenomena, was
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Derrida
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The analytical approach that carefully investigates individual elements in cultural phenomena, rejecting the quest for universal structures that might under-gird language or religions is
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Post-structuralism
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The analytical approach to language, religions, and mythology that searches for universal underlying frameworks is
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structuralism
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the analytical approach that studies written texts of religion and even non-written material as reflections of the cultural values and assumptions that produced them is
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literary theory
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The German theologian who held that religions originate in human response to the mysterious side of reality was
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Rudolf Otto
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The American thinker who argued that religion brought a new vitality to people’s lives was
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William James
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The Scottish anthropologist who was the author of the multivolume study of mythology called The Golden Bough was
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James Frazer
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The French thinker who explored types of power in social and religious institutions and systems of thought that oppressed minority and other marginalized groups was
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Foucault.
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The anthropologist who lived in the Sudan among the Nuer and Azande peoples was
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Evans Pritchard
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The sociologist who emphasized that individual religions arise from and express the values of their societies was
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Durkheim
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Female imagery in religions may be seen in
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Spirals and eggs
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Anthropology typically studies religions as
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Cultural creations with multiple aspects