chapter 9 h&S

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By the second decade of the 20th century, psychologists agreed on the ____.
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None of the choices are correct.
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Watson’s approach to structuralism and functionalism was ____.
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a revolt
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Which of the following terms should be banned from psychology according to behaviorism?
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image mind consciousness
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For Watson, such subject matter as mind, consciousness, and images was ____.
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meaningless for a science of psychology
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Who argued that consciousness, as a concept, was as unprovable as the concept of the soul?
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Watson
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For Watson, introspection was ____.
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irrelevant
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For Comte, valid knowledge is that which is ____.
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objectively observable and social in nature
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The early 20th-century Zeitgeist in science was marked by ____.
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positivism
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The most important antecedent of Watson’s behaviorism was ____.
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animal psychology
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Who had a theory of tropisms?
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Loeb
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For Loeb, a tropism is a(n) ____.
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involuntary forced movement
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For Loeb, if an animal’s response is forced by a stimulus, the ____.
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behavior requires no inferences about consciousness
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The white rat and the rat maze became staples of research in psychology in 1900 with the work of ____.
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Willard S. Small
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Watson’s dissertation was on ____.
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the conscious experience of rats
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An early African American researcher in comparative psychology was ____.
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Turner
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The Animal Mind, the first textbook on comparative psychology, was written by ____.
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Margaret Washburn
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Who wrote a paper on ant behavior that was highly praised by Watson?
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Turner
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The \”last stand\” of mentalistic interpretations of animal behavior was the text ____ written by ____.
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The Animal Mind; Washburn
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Which of the following statements best describes the change that took place in animal psychology following the work of Romanes and Morgan?
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The field became more objective as mentalistic terms were dropped from the descriptions of behavior.
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According to Schultz and Schultz, \”Whether dealing with mind or with behavior, it was not easy to be ____.\”
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an animal psychologist
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The particular contribution of Pavlov’s work to Watson’s behaviorism was Pavlov’s ____.
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objective methodology
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Pfungst demonstrated that the apparent thinking ability of the horse Clever Hans was really due to the animal’s ability to respond to ____.
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head movements
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The case of Clever Hans served to ____.
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illustrate the importance of objective, experimental study of animal behavior with proper control conditions
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Thorndike’s (1898) law of effect is similar to ____.
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Pavlov’s law of reinforcement
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The first doctoral dissertation in psychology to use animal subjects was that of ____.
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Thorndike
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In Thorndike’s early research, he worked with all of the following except ____.
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children
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Thorndike earned his Ph.D. in 1898 and after 1899 studied ____.
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human learning mental testing educational psychology
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An approach to learning termed ____ was developed by Thorndike.
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connectionism
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For Thorndike, learning is ____.
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making connections
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The influence of Romanes and Morgan on Thorndike was shown in Thorndike’s ____.
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use of mentalistic processes
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Thorndike’s approach was similar to that of structuralism in his focus on ____.
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mechanism
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Who used puzzle boxes to study animal behavior?
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Thorndike
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The puzzle box is traditionally associated with the work of ____.
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Thorndike
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Thorndike used ____ measures of learning to record his data.
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quantitative
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Thorndike’s \”trial and accidental success\” learning is more commonly known as ____ learning.
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trial-and-error
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Habit strength is a function of repetition. This is an instance of ____.
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Thorndike’s law of exercise
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Thorndike’s ideas about the stamping in or stamping out of a response tendency led to his statement of ____.
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the law of effect
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Who first demonstrated that reward had a stronger effect than punishment?
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Thorndike
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Thorndike’s revision of his law of effect stated that ____.
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punishing a response weakened a connection but not to the same degree that rewards strengthened a connection
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The \”original\” law of effect states that ____.
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any act that produces satisfaction is more likely to occur again; any act that produces discomfort is less likely to occur again
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Thorndike’s particular contribution to behaviorism was his focus on ____.
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the experimental method
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Pavlov’s work effected a change in focus from ____ to observable physiological events.
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subjective speculation about associationism
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Whose work has been described as \”a shift from speculation to experimentation?\”
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Pavlov
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What led Pavlov to shift from a study of theology to that of animal psychology?
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Darwin’s theory
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Who could be described as an absent-minded genius?
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Pavlov
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The term psychic reflexes reflects ____.
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Pavlov’s early inclination to use mentalistic terms
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Pavlov’s conditioned reflexes require ____ for learning to occur.
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reinforcements and S-R connections
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More than any other researcher in psychology before him, Pavlov attempted to ____.
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eliminate sources of error from his studies and implement the experimental method.
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In the typical conditioning experiment done by Pavlov, the food placed in the dog’s mouth is called the ____.
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unconditioned stimulus
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For Pavlov, ____ is necessary for learning to take place
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reinforcement
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Pavlov conducted research on ____.
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reinforcement extinction generalization discrimination
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According to Pavlov in the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), his starting point in research was ____.
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Descartes idea of the nervous reflex
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In the last half of the original Source Material from Conditioned Reflexes (1927), Pavlov discussed ____.
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he building of what became known as the \”Tower of Silence\”
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While Pavlov was exploring conditioning in Russia, an American named ____ also discovered the existence of conditioned reflexes.
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Edwin Burket Twitmyer
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If the 1904 APA attendees been more attentive, we might today speak of ____.
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Twitmyerian conditioning
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Which of the following is (are) true?
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Pavlov argued that higher mental processes in animals could be described in physiological terms. Pavlovian methods have had practical applications.
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Pavlov’s work illustrated the study of higher mental processes in ____.
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physiological terms
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For Pavlov, humans and animals were ____.
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machines
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Consistent with James’s views, Pavlov argued that ____.
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psychology was not yet a science
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Pavlov’s view of psychology was ____.
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initially negative, then somewhat favorable
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Which of the following statements is not true regarding Bekhterev?
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Bekhterev had a cordial relationship with Pavlov.
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Bekhterev discovered ____.
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the associated reflexes
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Bekhterev ____.
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applied Pavlovian principles to the muscles
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Objective Psychology was authored by ____.
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Bekhterev
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Bekhterev ___.
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argued that thought processes depended upon muscle responses of the speech
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Watson was not the first to demand an objective psychology and, according to one historian, ____ is considered the grandfather of Watson’s behaviorism.
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Cattell
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Who first defined psychology as the study of behavior?
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Pillsbury
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Angell proposed that the term consciousness had about the same life expectancy in psychology as the term ____.
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soul

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