Chapter 9 Developmental

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9-198. The majority of old people are unable to adapt to change.
answer

False
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9-1. Which of the following is considered an expert who studies aging? a) Genealogist b) Gerontologist c) Oncologist d) Endocrinologist
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b
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9-4. Which of the following groups have some health problems and difficulties with daily activities? a) Young old b) Middle old c) Old old d) Oldest old
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c
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9-5. Which of the following is the definition of “young old”? a) Some health problems and difficulties with daily living activities b) Healthy and active c) Frail and in need of care d) Senior citizen
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b
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9-6. Which of the following is the definition of “old old”? a) Some health problems and difficulties with daily living activities b) Healthy and active c) Frail and in need of care d) Geriatric
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a
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9-7. Which of the following is the definition of “oldest old”? a) Some health problems and difficulties with daily living activities b) Healthy and active c) Frail and in need of care d) Senior citizen
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c
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9-8. Sophia is a 98-year-old woman who still lives independently, has no major illnesses, and is able to take daily walks to the local grocery store. Which of the following best describes Sophia’s functional age? a) Oldest old b) Old old c) Young old d) Geriatric
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c
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9-9. Deron is a 68-year-old man who smoked most of his life and is now battling asthma. He struggles to complete some of his daily activities; otherwise, he is able to live an independent, full life. Which of the following best describes Deron’s functional age? a) Oldest old b) Old old c) Young old d) Geriatric
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b
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9-10. Wilma is a 75-year-old woman who has chronic pulmonary disease and osteoporosis, and she recently suffered a stroke. She now needs quite a bit of assistance on a daily basis. Which of the following best describes Wilma’s functional age? a) Oldest old b) Old old c) Young old d) Geriatric
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a
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9-11. According to the terminology used by demographers, people between the ages of 65 and 74 years are called __________. a) old old b) young old c) geriatric d) oldest old
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b
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9-12. According to the terminology used by demographers, people between the ages of 75 and 84 years are called __________. a) old old b) young old c) geriatric d) oldest old
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a
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9-13. According to the terminology used by demographers, people above 85 years of age are called __________. a) old old b) young old c) geriatric d) oldest old
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d
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9-59. Alzheimer’s patients comprise approximately _______ of the people living in nursing homes. a) 1/4 b) 2/3 c) 2/5 d) 1/3
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b
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9-135. Frederick is living in a specialized living environment where all residents are of retirement age and in need of some level of care. The specific needs, however, differ from one resident to the next. Frederick probably lives in a(n) __________. a) adult day care b) skilled nursing facility c) assisted-living facility d) continuing care community
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d
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9-136. Grace’s care needs have increased since her husband’s death. She has moved into an independent housing unit that is supported by medical providers as needed. Grace is living in a(n) __________. a) adult day care facility b) assisted-living facility c) skilled nursing facility d) support facility
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b
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9-138. Amad does not need continued care. However, he does receive care during the day in the form of meals and occasional nursing care. What type of facility does Amad attend? a) drop-in facility b) skilled nursing c) assisted living d) adult day care
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d
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9-139. What type of facility provides extensive care for those with chronic illnesses or who are recovering from a temporary medical condition? a) skilled nursing b) adult day care c) assisted living d) independent living
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a
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9-140. Renee is 67 years old and is in the hospital because she broke her hip. She will need extensive physical therapy for two months. Which of the following is the proper facility to provide care for her? a) adult day care b) skilled nursing c) assisted living d) extended care
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b
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9-141. What percentage of people age 75 to 84 live in nursing homes? a) 1.4 percent b) 3.0 percent c) 4.4 percent d) 7.0 percent
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c
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9-68. Which of the theories promotes the view that the cells of the body can only duplicate a certain number of times, and that the genetic instructions for running the body can be read only a certain number of times before they become illegible? a) Wear and tear theories b) Genetic programming theories of aging c) Life expectancy theories d) Inevitable death theories
answer

b
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9-18. Aging that involves universal and irreversible changes that, due to genetic programming, occur as people get older is called __________. a) inward aging b) secondary aging c) outward aging d) primary aging
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d
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9-72. The wear and tear theories of aging argue that the body constantly manufactures energy and creates ___________, which eventually reach such high levels that they impair the body’s normal functioning. a) byproducts b) radiations c) diseases d) toxins
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a
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9-73. Which theories of aging argue that the body’s constant manufacturing of energy creates byproducts that combine with various toxins and eventually reach such high levels that they impair the body’s ability to function normally? a) Life expectancy theories b) Genetic programming theories of aging c) Wear and tear theories d) Inevitable death theories
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c
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9-65. The theories that the mechanical functions of the body simply decay with age are called the __________. a) wear and tear theories b) inevitable death theories c) life expectancy theories d) genetic programming theories of aging
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a
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9-64. Theories that suggest that our body’s DNA genetic code contains a built-in time limit for the reproduction of human cells are called the __________. a) wear and tear theories b) inevitable death theories c) life expectancy theories d) genetic programming theories of aging
answer

d
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9-67. Which of the theories promotes the idea that a long life after the reproductive years is unnecessary for the survival of the species? a) Wear and tear theories b) Genetic programming theories of aging c) Life expectancy theories d) Inevitable death theories
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b
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9-75. What is the term for the average age of death for members of a population? a) Life span b) Life expectancy c) Peer group expectancy d) Active duration
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b
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9-142. Tony has been in a nursing home for one year. He has become apathetic, indifferent, and does not care about himself. From which of the following is Tony suffering? a) Disengagement b) Disenfranchisement c) Institutionalism d) Neurodementia
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c
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9-247. Institutionalism is believed to be caused, at least partially, by learned helplessness.
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true
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9-248. Helplessness brought about by institutionalism does not have serious consequences.
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false
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9-143. Learned helplessness is a belief that __________. a) being helpless leads to wellness b) being helpless leads to despair c) one must help oneself to receive help d) one has no control over one’s environment
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d
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9-84. Memories that are related to specific life experiences, such as recalling the events of a vacation, are called __________ memories. a) life b) episodic c) semantic d) visual
answer

b
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9-85. Memories that are related to general facts, such as the names of the capitals of states or addition facts, are called __________ memories. a) factual b) episodic c) semantic d) visual
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c
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9-86. Memories that are related to unconscious information, such as how to ride a bike or write one’s name, are called __________ memories. a) factual b) episodic c) semantic d) implicit
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d
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9-87. Which type of memory capacity changes during old age, and shows a more pronounced decline around age 70? a) Long-term memory b) Implicit memory c) Short-term memory d) Episodic memory
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c
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9-88. Short-term memory slips gradually until __________, when the decline becomes more pronounced. a) middle age b) age 70 c) age 80 d) age 90
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b
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9-89. When an elderly person demonstrates difficulty with multi-step verbal information that is presented quickly, the person is exhibiting problems with __________ memory. a) episodic b) long-term c) implicit d) short-term
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d
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9-90. Memories from one’s own life are called __________ memories. a) visual b) implicit c) autobiographical d) explicit
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c
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9-79. The relationship between environmental factors and intellectual skills suggests that with the proper stimulation, practice, and motivation, older people can maintain their mental abilities. This illustrates the concept of __________. a) learning b) plasticity c) life experience d) intellectual functioning
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b
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9-80. Plasticity in cognitive skills in the elderly depends on __________. a) innate skills b) degeneration of the senses c) proper stimulation d) demotivation
answer

c
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9-48. What is the term for a progressive brain disorder that produces loss of memory and confusion and, in many cases, death? a) Dementia b) Alzheimer’s disease c) Drug intoxication d) A stroke
answer

b
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9-51. Muriel is an 86-year-old woman who tries to function independently but has suffered for several years with forgetfulness, especially with recent memories. She has trouble recalling the names of her best friends when they call on the phone, and she worries that she may have a form of dementia called __________. a) Alzheimer’s disease b) Huntington’s disease c) schizophrenia d) Parkinson’s disease
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a
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9-52. In the final stage of Alzheimer’s disease, people __________. a) lose olfactory buds b) have trouble recalling particular words during conversation c) demonstrate unusual forgetfulness d) lose voluntary control of their muscles and are bedridden
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d
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9-54. One theory of how __________ occurs is that the production of beta amyloid precursor proteins goes awry and clumps of inflammatory and deterioration-causing cells are produced. a) Huntington’s disease b) Alzheimer’s disease c) schizophrenia d) Parkinson’s disease
answer

b
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9-154. Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees engage in a variety of activities, such as travel, that were less possible while they were still working full time? a) Disenchantment b) Reorientation c) Retirement routine d) Honeymoon
answer

d
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9-155. Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees feel that retirement is not all that they thought it would be, and they may miss the stimulation of a job or find that it’s difficult to keep busy? a) Disenchantment b) Reorientation c) Retirement routine d) Honeymoon
answer

a
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9-156. Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees reconsider their options and become engaged in new, more fulfilling activities? a) Disenchantment b) Reorientation c) Retirement routine d) Termination
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b
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9-157. Which of the following stages of retirement means that retirees come to grips with the realities of retirement and feel fulfilled with the new phase of life? a) Disenchantment b) Reorientation c) Retirement routine d) Honeymoon
answer

c
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9-254. The majority of people who are still married in late adulthood report that they are satisfied with their marriages.
answer

true
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9-105. Mollie has been retired for 10 years and is 71 years old. She is having a conversation with her daughter, discussing plans to do different things with each of her grandchildren. According to Robert Peck, Mollie is in what developmental stage? a) Ego integrity versus despair b) Ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation c) Body transcendence versus body preoccupation d) Redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work role
answer

d
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9-107. In Peck’s body transcendence versus body preoccupation stage, what may ultimately be affected in the developmental process? a) Emotions b) Personality c) Cognition d) Ability to learn
answer

b
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9-108. In Peck’s developmental stages, body transcendence refers to __________. a) moving beyond psychological limitations b) moving beyond physical changes c) having order in one’s life d) congruence between mind and body
answer

b
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9-109. Last year, Greta’s knee injury caused her to drop out of her bowling league, but at 90 years old, she still enjoys life and is involved in many activities. Greta is successful at which of Peck’s developmental stages? a) Redefinition of self versus preoccupation with work role b) Ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation c) Body transcendence versus body preoccupation d) Integrity versus despair
answer

c
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9-110. Which of the following psychologists suggests that personality development in elderly people is occupied by three major developmental tasks or challenges? a) Bernice Neugarten b) Daniel Levinson c) Robert Peck d) Erik Erikson
answer

c
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9-99. Which of the following theorists examined personality in the ego integrity versus despair stage of psychosocial development? a) Robert Peck b) Daniel Levinson c) Erik Erikson d) Bernice Neugarten
answer

c
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9-113. What is the focus of Daniel Levinson’s theory of adult development? a) Reaffirming personality change throughout the course of life from birth to death b) Preparing for death c) Achieving ego transcendence d) The process of personality change associated with aging
answer

d
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9-114. According to Daniel Levinson, at which of the following ages might a person be entering into late adulthood by passing through a transition stage? a) 54 b) 63 c) 70 d) 75
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b
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9-115. Daniel Levinson discusses a transition stage people pass through when entering late adulthood; in this transition stage, they realize that they are __________. a) virile b) old c) competent d) ego vested
answer

b
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9-116. Which of the following areas was the focus of Bernice Neugarten’s work? a) How emotions affect the aging process b) Different ways people cope with aging c) Cognitive processes in aging d) Social deterrents to the aging process
answer

b
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9-117. Jorge cannot accept that he is getting older and experiences despair. According to Bernice Neugarten, what is his personality type? a) Passive-dependent b) Defended c) Disintegrated and disorganized d) Integrated
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c
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9-118. Camille is becoming extremely fearful of becoming ill as she ages, and constantly makes preparations for the help that she thinks she will need. According to Bernice Neugarten, Camille is a(n) __________. a) integrated personality b) defended personality c) disintegrated and disorganized personality d) passive-dependent personality
answer

d
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9-119. According to Bernice Neugarten, people who attempt to stop the aging process by acting young, exercising, and participating in youthful activities are a(n) __________. a) defended personality b) integrated personality c) passive-dependent personality d) disintegrated and disorganized personality
answer

a
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9-25. During a geriatrics conference, discussion was focused on age-related changes to brain size and cognitive functioning. Which of the following summaries is most accurate for this discussion? a) The brain will remain the same size, and cognitive function can remain the same if the person keeps active. b) Brain structure and cognition will decline slightly. c) Brain structure will be drastically reduced, and cognitive functioning will decrease. d) The brain becomes smaller and lighter with age, and brain cells begin to decline.
answer

d
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9-23. Osteoporosis affects what percentage of women over 60? a) 10 percent b) .5 percent c) 25 percent d) 50 percent
answer

c
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9-213. Hearing loss in the elderly can hasten cognitive decline.
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true
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9-41. Which of the following is a leading cause of death in elderly people? a) Heart disease b) Arthritis c) Alzheimer’s disease d) Depression
answer

a

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