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Chapter 8; Race and Ethnicity

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Unit 8.1
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Race: Myth and Reality
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Ethnicity
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(or ethnic) having distinctive cultural characteristics
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Genocide
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the systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation of people because of their resumed race or ethnicity
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Race
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a group whose inherited physical characteristics distinguish it from another group
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Explain three myths of race.
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– The myth of pure races: Races are an endless mixture of biological characteristics, not distinct types. – The myth of a fixed number of races: There is no argument on how many races there are. Using different characteristics, some biologists and anthropologists have concluded that there are just two races, others that there are 2,000. – The myth of racial superiority: All races have their geniuses and idiots. This ethnocentric belief is particularly dangerous and has led to the holocaust and other forms of organized murder.
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Explain how ethnicity differs from race.
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People use the term race to refer to biological characteristics that distinguish one group of people from another. The terms ethnicity and ethnic refer to cultural characteristics that distinguish one group of people from another.
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This unit made the point that there are no pure races because a. the races used to be different than they are today b. climate changes have changed the races c. the biological characteristics of groups flow endlessly together d. new genetic research shows there are just three different causes of skin color
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the biological characteristics of groups flow endlessly together
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As Ashley Montagu, a physical anthropologist, stressed, the belief that there is a fixed number of races is a myth. He pointed out that even scientists can’t agree how to classify “race.” They have classified humans into these many “races” a. 2 to 2,000 b. 6 to 60 c. 4 to 40 d. 2 to 20
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2 to 2,000
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The author points out that the idea of race is so arbitrary that even a. slavery changed people’s idea of race b. some government officials disagree on how to classify people c. some parents don’t know what race their children are d. a plane ride can change someone’s race
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a plane ride can change someone’s race
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Sociologists point out that race is a. unchanging b. a fixed biological characteristic c. a label we use to describe perceived biological characteristics d. a major reason that people act the way they do
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a label we use to describe perceived biological characteristics
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The race you “are” depends on a. your birth b. who is doing the classifying c. your mother more than your father d. genetic mutations
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who is doing the classifying
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The Nazi slaughter of those they deemed inferior – Jews, Slavs, gypsies, homosexuals, and people with mental and physical disabilities – is called a. the cleansing b. World War II c. the burning d. the holocaust
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the holocaust
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The attempt to destroy a group of people because of their presumed race or ethnicity is called a. phenocide b. raceicide c. genocide d. geneticide
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genocide
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When it comes to race relations, this is an important principle to understand a. race is one of the most important reasons that people do what they do b. people act on perceptions and beliefs, not facts c. in interracial marriage, the superior race gets inferior traits d. there are only four pure races
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people act on perceptions and beliefs, not facts
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The author syas that most people appear to believe that their own race is – at least just a little – superior to others. Most people, the, are a. ethnocentric b. biocentric c. centrocentric d. unaware of historic events that show different races getting ahead of different times
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ethnocentric
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Sociologists use this term to refer to cultural characteristics that distinguish one group of people from another a. race b. symbolic interaction c. culturism d. ethnicity
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ethnicity
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Unit 8.2
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Minority Groups and Dominant Groups
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Assimilation
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the process of being absorbed into the mainstream culture
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Compartmentalize
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to separate acts from feelings or attitudes
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Dominant Group
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the group with the most power, greatest privileges, and highest social status
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Ethnic Cleansing
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a policy of eliminating a population; includes forcible expulsion and genocide
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Ethnic Work
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activities designed to discover, enhance, maintain, or transmit an ethnic or racial identity
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Internal Colonialism
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the policy of exploiting minority groups for economic gain
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Minority Group
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people who are singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
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Multiculturalism
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(also called pluralism) a policy that permits or encourages ethnic differences
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Population Transfer
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the forced transfer of a minority group
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Segregation
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the policy of keeping racial-ethnic groups apart
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Pluralism
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the diffusion of power among many interest groups that prevents any single group from gaining control of the government
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Contrast minority and dominant groups and list the origin of minority groups.
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Minority groups receive unequal treatment, and their members regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination. Dominant groups have greater power and privilege and discriminate against minority groups. A dominant group can be smaller than a minority group. Minority groups are created when a group expands, incorporating groups with different racial-ethnic characteristics into a political unit or when a group migrates to an area dominated by a group with different characteristics.
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Summarize the six ways that dominant groups treat minority groups.
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– Genocide – the dominant group tries to destroy the minority group. – Population Transfer – the dominant group expels the minority group – Internal Colonialism – the dominant group exploits the minority group – Segregation – the dominant group structures the social institutions to maintain minimal contact with the minority group – Assimilation – the dominant group absorbs the minority group – Multiculturalism (Pluralism) – the dominant group encourages racial and ethnic variation; when successful, there is no longer a dominant group
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Explain what leads to a high or low sense of race-ethnic identity.
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Groups that feel discrimination, have less power, and look different than most are likely to feel a heightened sense of ethnicity. People who belong to groups with more power, look like most people, and feel no discrimination are more likely to experience a sense of “belonging.”
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MaryAnn belongs to a group whose physical and cultural traits are held in low esteem by the dominant group. Members of her group tend to identify with one another and to marry within their own group. MaryAnn belongs to a a. sect b. cult c. dominant group d. minority group
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minority group
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Keisha belongs to a group that discriminates against those who have different – and supposedly inferior – traits. Her group considers its privileged position to be the result of its own innate superiority. Keisha belongs to a a. power group b. pure racial group c. dominant group d. minority group
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dominant group
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Until 1848, the Mexicans who were living in what is now the Southwest United States were the dominant group. After defeating Mexico in war in 1848, the United States took over the Southwest. The Mexicans living there were transformed into a a. power group b. pure racial group c. dominant group d. minority group
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minority group
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In Germany during the 1930s and 1940s the Nazis attempted to destroy all Jews. In the 1990s, in Rwanda, the Hutus tried to destroy all Tutsis. These are examples of a. population transfer b. segregation c. internal colonialism d. genocide
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genocide
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In the 1800s, the U.S. government relocated Native Americans to reservations and during World War II transferred Americans of Japanese descent to internment camps. These are examples of a. segregation b. multiculturalism (pluralism) c. population transfer d. internal colonialism
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popular transfer
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The South African System of apartheid can fit more than one type, but regarding its aspects of having blacks doing the hard manual labor, it fits this type a. multiculturalism (pluralism) b. internal colonialism c. genocide d. segregation
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internal colonialism
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In thirty-eight U.S. states, whites passed laws that prohibited marriage between blacks and whites. The penalties for violating the law included prison sentences. This is an example of a. segregation b. assimilation c. multiculturalism (pluralism) d. internal colonialism
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segregation
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In this policy, the minority group is able to maintain its separate identity, yet participate freely in the country’s social institutions. a. population transfer b. segregation c. multiculturalism (pluralism) d. internal colonialism
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multiculturalism (pluralism)
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MaryAnn, who belongs to a group that does not have much power or prestige or privileges and whose members regard themselves as discriminated against is likely to feel a a. high sense of opportunity b. heightened sense of power c. heightened sense of racial-ethnic identity d. low sense of racial-ethnic identity
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heightened sense of racial-ethnic identity
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MaryAnn decided to investigate her roots. She traveled back to her family’s country of origin, and she bought a cookbook that features frrod from the “old country.” MaryAnn is doing a. follow up b. ethnic work c. ancestral research d. minority group research
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ethnic work
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Unit 8.3
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Prejudice and Discrimination
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Discrimination
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an act of unfair treatment directed against an individual or a group
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Individual Discrimination
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person-to-person or face-to-face discrimination; the negative treatment of people by other individuals
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Institutional Discrimination
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negative treatment of a minority group that is built into a society’s institutions; also called systemic discrimination
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Prejudice
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an attitude or prejudging, usually in a negative way
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Racism
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prejudice and discrimination on the basis of race
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Distinguish between discrimination and prejudice and explain the origin of prejudice.
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Prejudice is an attitude, a prejudging of some sort, generally based on feelings about the superiority of one’s own group. Like other attitudes, prejudice is learned. Discrimination is an action, negative treatment of an individual or a group.
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Explain what internalizing dominant norms means.
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Dominant ideas – negative and positive – exist about racial-ethnic groups. Members of minority groups also learn their culture’s “road map” of ethnic relations, with some internalizing negative ideas about their own group.
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Contrast individual and institutional discrimination.
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Individual discrimination is one individual treating another unfairly. As with mortgages and health care, institutional discrimination is unfairness that is built into society. Institutional discrimination can occur without either the one discriminating or the one being discriminated against being aware of it.
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Juan, who owns a dry cleaners, cannot stand Pireneans. Whenever a Pirenean enters his shop, he goes into the back room and stays there until the Pirenean leaves. Juan’s action is an example of a. shortchanging a customer b. preferential customering c. prejudice d. discrimination
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discrimination
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Juan told a friend about what he does when Pireneans come into his shop. His friend said that you can’t trust Pireneans, that they steal and won’t work. Juan’s and his friend’s feelings and ideas are examples of a. erroneous ideas b. preferential customering c. prejudice d. discrimination
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prejudice
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The source of prejudice is a. inborn feelings b. learning from others c. unknown, but being investigated d. changing
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learning from others
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Back in 1946, psychologist Eugene Hartley asked people how they felt about several racial-ethnic groups. Besides Negroes, Jews, and so on, he included the Wallonians, Pireneans, and Danireans. The results showed that a. there were more prejudice against the Wallonians that the Danireans b. no one was prejudice against the Wallonians c. the Pireneans had the worst reputation d. people can be prejudice even against groups that do not exist
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people can be prejudice even against groups that do not exist
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People can learn to be prejudice against their own group. A national survey found that African Americans think that lighter-skinned African American women are more attractive than those with darker skin. This is an example of a. the white skin fallacy b. internalizing dominant norms c. dominant group prejudice d. in-group prejudice
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internalizing dominant norms
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In the Implicit Association Test, words are flashed on a screen along with photos of African Americans ans whites. Most subjects, both black and whites, are quicker to associate positive words with whites and negative words with blacks. This is an example of a. the white skin fallacy b. internalizing dominant norms c. dominant group prejudice d. in-group prejudice
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internalizing dominant norms
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To get through a course in calculus, Clarissa and her friends formed a study group. They refused to let Clara join them because Clara is a Wallonian. This is an example of a. a misplaced fallacy b. institutional discrimination c. individual discrimination d. prejudice
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individual discrimination
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If sociologists did national or statewide research on the acceptance rates of mortgage applicants and found that Wallonians with the credit history as other are more likely to be turned down for loans, this would be an example of a. a misplaced fallacy b. institutional discrimination c. individual discrimination d. prejudice
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institutional discrimination
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White patients are more likely than Latino or African American patients to receive knee replacements and coronary bypass surgery. That this discrimination is done by both white and black doctors illustrates that discrimination a. can be an example of a misplaced fallacy b. can occur without those during the discriminating being aware of what they are doing c. is almost an individual matter d. can arise from positive traits
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can occur without those during the discriminating being aware of what they are doing
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Unit 8.4
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Theories of Prejudice
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Authoritarian Personality
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Theodor Adorno’s term for people who are prejudice and rank high on measures of conformity, intolerance, insecurity, respect for authority, and submissiveness to superiors
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Reserve Labor Force
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the unemployed; unemployed workers are thought of as being “in reserve” – capitalists take them “out of reserve”(put them back to work) during times of high production and then lay them off(put them back in reserve) when they are no longer needed
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Scapegoat
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an individual or group unfairly blamed for someone else’s troubles
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Selective Perception
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seeing certain features of an object or situation, but remaining blind to others
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Split Labor Market
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workers split along racial, ethnic, gender, age, or any other lines; this split is exploited by owners to weaken the bargaining power of workers
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Summarize psychological theories of prejudice: scapegoats, frustration, and the authoritarian personality.
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Frustration can be directed outward, onto scapegoats, groups that have nothing to do with the cause of the frustration. The authoritarian personality refers to people who have a high respect for authority, see things as black and white, and tend to be prejudice.
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Explain the sociological perspectives of prejudice: functionalism, conflict, and symbolic interactionism.
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Functionalism: Some politicians find prejudice useful; using scapegoats helps them accomplish goals. Prejudice increases when groups are pitted against one another. The dysfunctions of prejudice include destroyed human relationships. Conflict Theory: Owners use the split labor market and the reserve labor force to pit worker against worker in order to control workers and increase their profits. Symbolic Interactionaism: Labels lead to selective perception. Some labels can even produce the behavior depicted by a stereotype.
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In the 1930s, Germany was in an inflationary depression so severe that it was wiping out the middles class. Hitler said that the Jews were profiting from good people’s problems, arousing prejudice and discrimination against Jews. Hitler was using the Jews as a a. reintegrative target b. passive prejudice probe c. reactionary model d. scapegoat
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scapegoat
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Psychologist Theodor Adorno tested people in the levels of ethnocentrism, andi-Semitism (bias against Jews), ans support for strong, authoritarian leaders. He gave this name to people who scored high on all three tests a. Hitlerites b. the authoritarian personality v. the prejudiced personality d. the exploited
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the authoritarian personality
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When sociologists study prejudice, that are interested in learning about the consequences of prejudice for social interaction and a. how prejudice creates wealth for some b. the origin of prejudice c. how prejudice creates inner turmoil for people who are prejudice d. how the social environment increases or decreases prejudice
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how the social environment increases or decreases prejudice
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At a boys’ summer camp, psychologists Muzafer Sherif and Carolyn Sherif assigned friends to different cabins and then had the cabin groups compete in sports. In just a few days a. the cabin groups formed alliances with one another b. three boys had to be sent home because they could not stand competing with friends c. parents demanded that the living arrangements be changed to conform to what they had agreed to when they signed the summer camp application d. strong in-groups formed and even lifelong friends began to call one another “crybaby” and “sissy”
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strong in-groups formed and even lifelong friends began to call one another “crybaby” and “sissy”
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The social environment can be set up to increase or decrease prejudice. This environment produces high prejudice a. requiring football players to spend long hours doing library research b. having people who recently broke up go on blind dates c. an “I win, you lose” situation d. women and men college students working on the same research teams
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an “I win, you lose” situation
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“The Nazis gained fron anti-Semitism. They seized businesses, bank accounts, fine art, and other property from Jews. They also replaced Jews in key positions (university professors, reporters, judges, and so on), giving these positions as prizes to their followers.” This statement is likely to be made by a a. psychologist b. functionalist c. conflict theorist d. symbolic interactionist
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functionalist
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When the all-male workforce at the cannery threatened to go on strike, management said, “Go ahead if you want to. A lot of women want your jobs, and they can run those machines just as good as you – and cheaper.” The managers were trying to break worker solidarity by taking advantage of a. a split labor market b. a reserve labor force c. a weak union d. labor opportunities
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a split labor market
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A year later, workers at the cannery could not stand their working conditions any longer and they again threatened to strike. This time, management said, “If you strike, we’ll replace you with all those unemployed men down at the labor office begging for work.” The managers were trying to break worker solidarity by threatening to use a a. labor disparity b. recession c. split labor market d. reserve labor force
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reserve labor force
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Labels lead us to see certain things while they blind us to others. When a group is labeled, we tend to perceive its members as all alike. We shake off evidence that doesn’t fit. This characteristic of labeling is called a. an open venue b. selective perception c. label blindness d. deep prejudice
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selective perception
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Members of Group A think that members of Group B are lazy. They never offer jobs to members of Group B. Many members of Group B are poor and unemployed and hang around the streets. Members of Group A take the idleness of Group B as proof that their ideas about Group B are right. This is an example of a. job lockup b. prejudice without discrimination c. discrimination without prejudice d. a self-fulfilling stereotype
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a self-fulfilling stereotype
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Unit 8.5
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Racial-Ethnic Relations: European Americans
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WASP
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white anglo-saxon protestant
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White Ethnics
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white immigrants to the United States whose cultures differ from WASP culture
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Specify the major racial-ethnic groups and their percentages of the U.S. population.
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The groups are whites (65%), Latinos (Hispanics) (15%), African Americans (13%), Asian Americans (4%), amd Native Americans (1%). From 1 to 2 percent claim membership in more than one of these groups.
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Summarize the relationship of Anglos to white ethnics in the early years of the United States and indicate how racism showed up in an early law.
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The Anglos (the English) held negative stereotypes of other groups, including white ethnics, immigrants from European countries other than England. The taken-for-granted prejudice of that period is indicated by the Naturalization Act Congress passed in 1790, declaring that only white immigrants could apply for citizenship.
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Most people in the United States trace their ancestry to a. Africa b. Asia c. Australia d. Europe
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Europe
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In Maine and Vermont, whites outnumbers minorities 19 to 1. In this state, minorities outnumber whites 3 to 1 a. New Jersey b. Minnesota c. Hawaii d. Oregon
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Hawaii
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The Acronym WASP stands for a. Why Anglos Seem Powerful b. White Anglo-Saxon Protestant c. We Are Sexy People (most definitely!) d. Where Anyone Seems Pretty
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White Anglo-Saxon Protestant
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The dominant group in the early United States was the Anglos, people from England. They looked down on immigrants from other European countries, even despising them. The term for immigrants from Europe whose language and other customs differed from the Anglos is a. white ethnics b. WASPs c. SEEs (Southern and Eastern Europeans) d. USA (United Southern Anglos
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white ethnics
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Which generation of immigrants has the easiest adjustment to a new culture? a. first b. second c. third d. it’s about the same for these three generations
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third
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Prejudice was a taken-for-granted characteristic of the United States, which showed in their early laws. In 1790, Congress passed the Naturalization Act, declaring that a. the Pledge of Allegiance applied only to Anglos b. the Pledge of Allegiance applied only to Anglos and white ethnics c. only white immigrants could apply for citizenship d. black slaves could not apply for citizenship unless they passed a literacy test
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only white immigrants could apply for citizenship
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Unit 8.6
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Racial-Ethic Relations: Latinos (Hispanics)
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Discuss the causes, reaction, and extent of illegal immigration and the controversy over Spanish.
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Poverty in Mexico and Central and South America is the cause. Most Latinos have been born in the Unites States or are legal immigrants. About 9 million are living her illegally, which is an explosive political issue. In reaction, civilian volunteers also patrol the border with Mexico. With controversy over the use of Spanish, 30 states have declared English their official language.
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Explain the diversity of Latinos and how this affects their political unity.
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In addition to the usual social class divisions, Latinos are divided by country of origin. Most think of themselves not as Latino or Hispanic (classifications placed on them) but identify with people who came from the same country. This splits Latinos politically.
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The term Latino and Hispanic refer to a. a race b. people from Mexico who are legal immigrants c. Americans from Mexico who have a sense of ethnic oppression and unity d. an ethnic group
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an ethnic group
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Some Latinos want to limit the term Chicanos – commonly used to refer to Americans from Mexico – to those who a. are legal immigrants b. bypassed legal channels when they moved to the United States c. are from Mexico and have been in the United States foe a second generation or longer d. have a sense of ethnic oppression and unity
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have a sense of ethnic oppression and unity
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With about 47 million people and making up about 15% of the population, the largest minority group in the United States is a. African Americans b. Asian Americans c. Latinos d. European Americans
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Latinos
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Comparing the number of Latinos in the United States with the population of Canada, we find that a. more Canadians live in Canada than there are Latinos living in the United States b. millions more Latinos live in the United States than there are Canadians in Canada c. the number of Latinos in the United States is about the same as the number of Canadians in Canada d. there is no way to compare these totals
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millions more Latinos live in the United States than there are Canadians in Canada
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The primary reason for the massive migration of Mexicans to the United States is a. jobs b. education c. freedom of association d. the free press
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jobs
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This country has become one of the largest Spanish-speaking nations in the world a. France b. Germany c. Paraguay d. the United States
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the United States
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Earlier immigrants from Germany, Sweden, and England felt they had little in common with one another. This feeling is shared by Latinos who a. are coming in huge numbers from Germany, Sweden, and England b. believe that their country of origin is no longer relevant c. are divided by country of origin d. generally refuse to vote for candidates whose background is German or Swedish
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are divided by country of origin
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In a postindustrial society that increasingly requires advanced skills, the statistics indicate that huge numbers of Latinos will be left behind. This is because Latinos a. dislike education b. are the most likely to drop out of high school and the least likely to graduate from college c. are taking more theoretical than practical courses in high school and college d. are not willing to move where the jobs are
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are the most likely to drop out of high school and the least likely to graduate from college
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Unit 8.7
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Racial-Ethnic Relations: African Americans
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Rising Expectations
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the sense that better conditions are soon to follow, which, if unfulfilled, increases frustration
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Explain the conditions of African Americans in the South after slavery.
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Among other conditions, African Americans were segregated; the back of buses, separate and inferior schools, and no voting. When the segregationist (Jim Crow) laws were banned, rising expectations accompanied by little change led to riots.
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Discuss the economic and political gains and losses of African Americans.
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Economic Gains: 40% of families make over $50,000 a year. Political Gains: Two African American governors and a President. The Losses: One of five or six makes less than $15,000 a year. And only one African American is a Senator.
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Summarize the sociological debate about race-ethnicity and social class.
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With African Americans increasingly divided into the “haves” and the “have nots,” some sociologists suggest that African American life is now shaped more by social class than by race. Others disagree. All agree that race remains an everyday burden for African Americans.
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After slavery was abolished, the southern states passed laws to segregate blacks and whites. These laws were called a. separation laws b. Martin Luther King laws c. Henry Mack laws d. Jim Crow laws
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Jim Crow laws
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In this infamous 1896 decision, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that it was a reasonable use of state power to require “separate but equal” accommodations for blacks a. Martin Luther King vs. James Shepherd b. Du Bois vs. The State of Georgia c. Plessy vs. Ferguson d. The American Sociological Association vs. The American Psychological Association
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Plessy vs. Ferguson
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The southern states passed laws to limit voting in political primaries to whites. When, in 1944, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that political primaries weren’t “white” and were open to all voters, African Americans became eligible to vote in southern states. In response, southern states passed laws that limited voting to people who could pass these tests a. constitutional knowledge b. literacy c. illiteracy d. reciting the Bill of Rights
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literacy
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After a series of sweeping legal changes, African Americans thought that better conditions would come soon, a condition that often precedes revolution. Riots erupted when the lives of the poor among them changed little, if at all. Sociologists use this term to refer to rising expectations that good changes will come soon a. rising expectations b. standard change c. challenging change d. frustration-deficit syndrome
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rising expectations
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As college enrollments increased, the middle class expanded, and today 40% of all African American families make more than $50,000 a year. The other part of the picture is that almost one of every five or six African American families a. is not putting money away for the college education of their children b. makes $200,000 or more per year c. is a college graduate d. makes less than $15,000 a year
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makes less than $15,000 a year
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The chances of African Americans being murdered is this much higher than that of whites a. two times b. four times c. six times d. there is no difference in the murder rates of whites and blacks
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six times
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Sociologist William Julius Wilson ignited a debate in sociology when he proposed that this has become more important than race is determining the life chances of African Americans a. poverty b. social class c. the region of the country in which African Americans live d. whether people live in urban or rural areas
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social class
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Sociologists analyze how racism is an everyday burden for minorities. In one of their studies, they mailed 5,000 resumes in response to help-wanted ads. The resumes were identical, except some applicants had black-sounding names and others had white-sounding names. Applicants with white-sounding names received a. 50% more callbacks b. 10% more callbacks c. 10% fewer callbacks d. 50% fewer callbacks
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50% more callbacks
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Unit 8.8
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Racial-Ethnic Relations: Asian Americans
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Explain why the term Asian American does not refer to a race.
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Laotians and Pakistanis, people from Guam and those from China, people from Japan and India, Laos and Thailand – these and many other groups are lumped together and given this single label.
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Discuss the success of Asian Americans.
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The average income of Asian Americans is the highest of all racial-ethnic groups, including that of whites. The basic reasons include low rates of divorce and teenage childbirth combined with high rates of assimilation and college graduation. Asian Americans have cautiously entered politics, where they are seeing some success.
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Laotians and Pakistanis, people from Guam and those from China, people from Japan and India, Nepal and Thailand, Malaysia and Vietnam: These and many other people are lumped together and given this single label a. African Americans b. European Americans c. Native Americans d. Asian Americans
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Asian Americans
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To unify the country, the U.S. government gave away huge amounts of land to build railroads to the West Coast. About 90% of the Central Pacific Railroad’s workers were Chinese. When a photo of the completion of the railroad to the West Coast was taken, a. the Chinese workers went on strike b. the white workers went on strike c. the Chinese workers were not allowed in the photo d. the photographer, a secret agent of the railroad, assassinated the top Chinese leader, who was forming a workers’ union
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the Chinese workers were not allowed in the photo
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The U.S. legal system used to be openly racist. Here is one example. California’s 1850 Foreign Miner’s Act required Chinese (and Latinos) to pay $20 a month in order to work – when wages were a dollar a day. Here is another: The California Supreme Court ruled that Chinese a. were not citizens b. could not testify against whites c. had to return to China by the age of 30 d. women had to use birth control
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the Chinese workers were not allowed in the photo
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During World War II, U.S. authorities feared that Japanese Americans would sabotage military installations on the West Coast. On February 19, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered that everyone who was one-eighth Japanese or more a. be confined in detention centers b. be sent to Alaska c. had to serve in the U.S. armed forces and fight Japan d. had to take an oath of allegiance if they were going to work for the government, including teaching school
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be confined in detention centers
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Asian Americans have faced severe prejudice and discrimination. Today, their average incomes are a. declining b. about the same as that of African Americans c. less than that of Native Americans d. considerably higher than that of whites
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considerably higher than that of whites
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Despite the overall success of Asian Americans, their poverty rate is higher than that of whites, especially for Americans from Southeast Asia. Poverty is especially low for Americans from a. Vietnam b. Thailand c. China and Japan d. Cambodia
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China and Japan
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There are several reasons that Asian Americans have been so successful. This is not one of them. a. a high rate of college graduation b. their refusal to own guns c. low rates of childbirth to single women d. assimilation
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their refusal to own guns
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Unit 8.9
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Racial-Ethnic Relations: Native Americans
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Pan-Indianism
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a movement that focuses on common elements in the cultures of Native Americans in order to develop a cross-tribal self-identity and to work toward the welfare of all Native Americans
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Explain the diversity of Native Americans.
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The European immigrants to the colonies encountered groups of people so diverse that they spoke over 700 languages and had many systems of norms and sanctions. Most were nomadic hunters, but some were farmers who lived in wooden houses. The tribes did not identify with one another.
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Summarize the U.S. government’s historical relationship with Native Americans.
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The government viewed Native Americans as enemies who stood in the way of their continental expansion. They slaughtered them, destroyed their food supply, made treaties and systematically broke them, and moved the Native Americans to reservations.
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Explain the situation of Native Americans today.
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Native Americans speak 150 languages and do not think of themselves as a single people. Their casinos are bringing prosperity to some poor areas. Main issues are self- determination tribal identity, and pan-Indianism.
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The European immigrants to the colonies encountered groups of people so diverse that they spoke over 700 languages and had contrasting systems of norms and sanctions. Most were nomadic hinters, but some a. traded horses for a living b. sold fish at a weekly market c. raised birds for a living d. were farmers who lived in wooden homes
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were farmers who lived in wooden homes
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When the Europeans arrived in North America, there were about this many million Native Americans a. 1 b. 5 c. 10 d. 50
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10
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By 1890, there were about this many Native Americans in the United States a. 250,000 b. 1 million c. 2 million d. 5 million
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250,000
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In the U.S. government’s dealing with the Native Americans, this was the common pattern. The government would make treaties to buy some of the tribe;s land, with the promise to honor forever the tribe’s right to what it had not sold. European immigrants would disregard these boundaries, and the U.S. government would a. enforce the treaty b. force the tribe off its lands c. instruct the settlers to move West where there was still plenty of land d. promise to give leaders of the tribe tax-free U.S. citizenship
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force the tribe off its lands
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In a process called Indian removal, the U.S. government a. forced about 10% of Native Americans to move to Canada b. separated Native American children from their parents and sent them to boarding schools c. declared it illegal for Native Americans to live in the federal district, Washington, D.C. d. moved Native Americans to reservations
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moved Native Americans to reservations
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In the winter of 1838-1839, the U.S. Army rounded up 15,000 Cherokees and forced them to walk 1,000 miles from the Carolinas and Georgia to Oklahoma. This event is called a. The Cherokee Roundup b. The Warning Shot c. The Trail of Tears d. The Impediment to Unity
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The Trail of Tears
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In general, the Native American casinos are doing well. Compared with the casinos in Las Vagas, the Native American casinos bring in a. one-tenth as much b. more c. about the same amount d. half as much
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more
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The emphasis on common elements that run through the Native American cultures is an attempt to develop an identity that goes beyond the tribe is called a. pan-Indianism b. tribalism c. Native American unity d. The Reconciliation
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pan-Indianism
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Unit 8.10
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Looking Toward the Future
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Discuss major trends in immigration and affirmative action and how they might influence your future.
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If the present pattern of immigration continues, by the year 2050, minorities will outnumber whites. A widespread fear is that the new immigrants will change the culture negatively, take away jobs, and dilute the political power of those who are already citizens. Estimating how this trend will affect your life is up to you.
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Present both sides of the affirmative action debate.
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Affirmative action has given preference to minorities in some hiring and promotion and in college admissions. Proponents argue that affirmative action is needed to make up for past wrongs, that it helps to level the playing field of opportunity. Opponents claim that affirmative action is reverse discrimination, that it discriminates against qualified people who are not guilty of discrimination.
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In 1903, this sociologist made this statement: “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the color line – the relation of the darker to the lighter races.” a. Max Weber b. Emile Durkheim c. Harriet Martineau d. W.E.B. Du Bois
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W.E.B. Du Bois
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Today, more immigrants live in the United States than at any other time in the country’s history. In earlier waves of immigration, immigrants came almost exclusively from western Europe. The current wave is so diverse that it is changing the U.S. racial-ethnic mix. If current trends persist, in less than fifty years a. there will be more immigrants than people who were born in the United States b. more Asian Americans will live in the United States than Chinese who live in China c. minorities will outnumber whites d. a major third political party will be formed to represent the interests of immigrants
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minorities will outnumber whites
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“I know I was turned down because of a minority,” moaned Barbara who had just received news that her application to a top college had been rejected. Without naming it, Barbara was referring to a program called a. affirmative action b. equal opportunity c. Making Thing Right d. Opportunity for All
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affirmative action
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The topic of affirmative action touches an emotional hot spot and arouses strong reactions. After sociologist Barbara Reskin examined the results of affirmative action, she concluded that a. it was unfair, a form of reserve discrimination b. the results were modest c. corporations were forced to hire unqualified people d. affirmative action programs should be dropped in university admissions but kept in government hiring
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the results were modest
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Cody is a member of the L.A. Crips. The other gangs in his territory are the Bloods and Satan’s Slaves. Cody feels very antagonistic towards the Bloods and the Slaves. For Cody, these two rival gangs would be considered _____. a. reference groups b. social networks c. secondary groups d. out-groups
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out-groups
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Sociologically, all New York Yankee fans around the world would be called a(n) _____. a. clique b. social group c. aggregate d. category
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category
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The division of large numbers of people into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige is called _____. a. social stratification b. social networking c. diversification d. structure
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social stratification
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Colonialism, World System Theory, and cultures of poverty are all explanations for the occurrence of _____. a. capitalism b. industrialism c. technological advancement d. global stratification
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global stratification
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Sam, a bartender who saw duty in Vietnam, refuses to serve Asians in his bar because he believes that Asians have no business living in the United States. Sam’s actions describe _____. a. prejudice and discrimination b. prejudice but not discrimination c. discrimination but not prejudice d. neither prejudice nor discrimination
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prejudice and discrimination
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A form of internal colonialism practiced in South Africa through which the dominant Afrikaaners exploited the minority group was called _____. a. subjugation b. ethnic cleansing c. forced assimilation d. apartheid
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apartheid
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Long Island residents who depend upon Salvadoran laborers for landscaping services but pass laws to prevent them from living in the same community are practicing _____. a. assimilation b. segregation c. amalgamation d. population transfer
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segregation
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When Bosnian Serbs practiced “ethnic cleansing” of the Muslim population during the 1990s they employed a combination of _____. a. population transfer and segregation b. population transfer and genocide c. assimilation and segregation d. genocide and pluralism
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population transfer and genocide
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Urban revolts, such as Watts, occur _____. a. after uprisings have already begun in rural areas b. only when people have low expectations c. when rising expectations are not met d. only in response to a shooting
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when rising expectations are not met
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Contact theory suggests that _____. a. any increase in contact between groups will decrease prejudice b. more contact between groups will decrease prejudice as long as the groups have the same standing and are working closely together to achieve a mutually beneficial outcome c. if we have less contact with people from other groups we will be less prejudiced against those groups and less likely to discriminate against individual members of those groups d. violence ensues when contact between people from different groups is too close
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more contact between groups will decrease prejudice as long as the groups have the same standing and are working closely together to achieve a mutually beneficial outcome
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Which is the U.S.’s biggest minority group? a. African Americans b. Native Americans c. Latino/Latina Americans d. Asian/Pacific Islander Americans
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Latino/Latina Americans
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Eugene Hartley’s research demonstrated that those who are prejudiced against one group are _____. a. just prejudiced against that group only b. often prejudiced against other groups as well c. usually prejudiced against only one other group at most d. seldom prejudiced against other groups
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often prejudiced against other groups as well
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California’s Proposition 209 has essentially _____. a. mandated quotas b. affirmed diversity as a worthwhile goal c. outlawed affirmative action in employment and higher education in California d. required California schools and businesses to make it harder for whites to get ahead
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outlawed affirmative action in employment and higher education in California
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Most Latinos/Latinas in the U.S. are of ______ ancestry. a. Cuban b. Mexican c. Columbian d. Puerto Rican
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Mexican
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Which group was interned after the attack on Pearl Harbor? a. Japanese Americans b. Chinese Americans c. Vietnamese Americans d. Mexican Americans
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Japanese Americans
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Ethnicity is based on _____ characteristics. a. biological b. genetic c. racial d. cultural
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cultural
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_____ entrenched the dominant culture in the U.S. a. Germans b. Poles c. Hungarians d. The English
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The English
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What halted Chinese immigration to the U.S.? a. The Far East Reduction Amendment of 1914 b. The Sino-Japanese War in 1937 c. The Communist takeover of China in 1949 d. The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
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The Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
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Which people could become U.S. citizens under the Naturalization Act of 1790? a. whites only b. whites and blacks only c. whites and Asians only d. Native Americans only
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whites only