Chapter 8 psych questions

Flashcard maker : Andrew Hubbs
rehearsal
One way that researchers have explored short-term memory is by eliminating _____, as in the study conducted by Lloyd Peterson and Margaret Peterson.
hippocampus
Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can’t recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the:
amygdala.
hypothalamus.
hippocampus.
cerebellum.
about 7
George Miller’s research on short-term memory capacity indicated that we can only store _____ in our short-term memory.
about seven bits of information
twelve bits of information
visual images
auditory stimuli
short term
Theo suffers from depression and is currently in treatment. His physician is using electroconvulsive therapy, which will affect his _____ memory.
acoustic encoding
It is easier to remember the phrase “what sobriety conceals, alcohol reveals” than the phrase “what sobriety conceals, alcohol unmasks.” This best illustrates the value of:
acoustic encoding.
the serial position effect.
the spacing effect.
implicit memory.
right hippocampus
Jonny has suffered hippocampal damage from a near-fatal bus crash. He is able to remember verbal information, but has no ability to recall visual designs and locations. He has probably suffered damage to his:
left thalamus.
left hippocampus.
right thalamus.
right hippocampus.
iconic memory
Nine-year-old Jade has just discovered something very interesting. She can look at a picture in a book and, when she closes her eyes, she can still see the picture very clearly for a few tenths of a second. Jade is experiencing:
iconic memory.
echoic memory.
implicit memory.
declarative memory.
meaning
Fergus Craik and Endel Tulving found that deep processing, by its _____, produced better recognition.
chunking
It is easier to remember information that is organized into meaningful units than information that is not. This is known as:
retroactive interference.
chunking.
implicit memory.
proactive interference.
semantic
Hermann Ebbinghaus observed that it is much easier to learn meaningful material than to learn nonsense material. This best illustrates the advantage of _____ encoding.
mneumonic
_____ aids can be used to help remember things like speeches or lists of items. These aids often incorporate the use of vivid imagery and organizational devices.
iconic
Research conducted by George Sperling showed that people have something akin to a fleeting photographic memory. This _____ provides a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, like a picture-image that lasts only a few tenths of a second.
explicit memory
echoic memory
iconic memory
long-term potentiation
semantic
_____ encoding is the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words.
effortful processing
As opposed to automatic processing, _____ refers to encoding that requires attention and conscious work.
effortful processing
consciousness
implicit memory
linguistic determinism
effortful
As opposed to automatic processing, _____ processing refers to encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
context
Meaningful _____ helps in remembering information from novel, abstract paragraphs.
retrospection
priming
retrieval
context
imagery
Using mental pictures is a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. This is called:
retrospection.
retrieval.
imagery.
priming.
flashbulb
John remembers very clearly the day his best friend died in a bicycle accident when he was hit by a drunk driver. This best illustrates _____ memory.
explicit
flashbulb
echoic
iconic
context
Meaningful _____ helps in remembering information from novel, abstract paragraphs.
mood congruent
_____ refers to our tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood. In other words, if you are in a bad mood, you will be more likely to have negative associations.
State-dependent learning
Retroactive inhibition
Serial position effect
Mood-congruent memory
positive transfer
When bits of information do not compete with each other, and actually facilitate memory, it is called:
motivated remembering.
egalitarian organization.
facilitative memory.
positive transfer.
retrieval cues
When you encode a piece of target information, other bits of information become associated with it. The bits of information connected with the target information are known as:
sensory memories.
flashbulb memories.
retrieval cues.
iconic memories.
Mrs. McBride cannot consciously recall how frequently she criticizes her children because it would cause her too much anxiety. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates:
repression.
source amnesia.
automatic processing.
retroactive interference.
herman; ivan
_____ was to the study of memory as _____ was to the study of conditioning.
Ivan Pavlov; John B. Watson
Hermann Ebbinghaus; Sigmund Freud
Ivan Pavlov; Hermann Ebbinghaus
Hermann Ebbinghaus; Ivan Pavlov
one
Luca has been studying all week for his final exam in biology. He studies until he is ready to go to bed because he knows that information presented within _____ before sleep will be remembered well.
three hours
one hour
two hours
four hours
priming
In the process of retrieving a specific memory from a web of associations, a person needs to activate one of the strands that leads to it. This known as:
iconic memory.
priming.
proactive inhibition.
echoic memory.
proactive interference
Whenever Mark tries to recall his new cell phone number, he keeps getting it mixed up with his old cell phone number. Mark’s failure to remember his new phone number is probably caused by:
proactive interference.
encoding failure.
the misinformation effect.
retroactive interference.
encoding
One reason our memories fail is because of problems with information _____.
repression
In psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories is called:
automatic processing.
retroactive interference
source amnesia.
repression.
state-dependent
When people learn something while in one state (e.g., when they are feeling joyful or sad), they are better able to recall that thing while in the same state. This is known as _____ learning.
proactive interference
_____ occurs when something you learned previously interferes with your recall of something you learn later.
Retroactive interference
Proactive interference
A flashbulb memory
Relearning
relearning
One way to test memory is to check the speed of _____ for things that we once learned but have since forgotten.
proactive interference
retroactive interference
priming
relearning
encoding
One reason our memories fail is because of problems with information:
imagery.
long-term potentiation.
source amnesia.
encoding.
rehearsal time
Hermann Ebbinghaus found that the more times he practiced the nonsense syllables on Day 1, the fewer repetitions he needed to relearn the information on Day 2 because he had increased his:
proactive time.
automatic processing time.
rehearsal time.
proactive
_____ interference occurs when something you learned before interferes with your recall of something you learn later.
recall
Which of the following measures of retention is the LEAST sensitive in triggering retrieval?
recall
relearning
They are all equally sensitive.
recognition
rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter
Which of the following best describes the typical forgetting curve?
a steady, rapid decline in retention over time
a steady, slow decline in retention over time
a slow initial decline in retention becoming rapid thereafter
a rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter
retrieval
Which of the following is NOT a measure of retention?
relearning
retrieval
recall
recognition
relearning
One way to test memory is to check the speed of _____ for things that we once learned but have since forgotten.
The greatest recall for the words happened when learning and testing were in the same context (e.g., learn underwater, get tested underwater).
In 1975, Duncan Godden and Alan Baddeley conducted a study using two groups of scuba divers. One group listened to a list of words while sitting on a beach. The other group listened to the same list of words while 10 feet underwater. What did the researchers discover about context and learning after both groups were retested in both the same and different environments?
The greatest recall for the words happened when learning and testing were in the same context (e.g., learn underwater, get tested underwater).
Participants who listened to the words on the beach did best, regardless of where they were asked to recall them.
There was no difference between the two groups.
Participants who listened to the words underwater did best, regardless of where they were asked to recall them.
mood-congruent memory
Those suffering from depression are more likely to have their memories affected by priming negative associations. This is known as:
state dependent learning.
retroactive inhibition.
mood-congruent memory.
serial position effect.
william james
He referred to priming as the “wakening of associations.”
Eugen Bleuler
Sigmund Freud
Raymond Cattell
William James
repressing
According to Sigmund Freud, one reason that people forget is because they are _____ painful memories.
retrieving
processing
repressing
focusing
the book was never purchased
Events that are forgotten are like books that cannot be found in a library. Which of the following scenarios can BEST be used to explain the encoding problem?
The book was never purchased.
The book was thrown away.
The card catalog is wrong.
The book is on the wrong shelf.
priming
In an effort to recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was engaged in the process of:
priming.
iconic memory.
implicit memory.
automatic processing.
retroactive interference
_____ occurs when something you learn now interferes with your ability to recall something you learned earlier.
Retroactive interference
Relearning
Proactive interference
A flashbulb memory
retrieval codes
The happier Judie feels, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be _____.
overlearning
even after you learn the material _____ increases retention
recall
which is least sensitive in triggering retrieval?
a rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter
Which of the following best describes the typical forgetting curve?
a slow initial decline in retention becoming rapid thereafter
a steady, rapid decline in retention over time
a rapid initial decline in retention becoming stable thereafter
a steady, slow decline in retention over time
it is easier to relearn for the second time
Katrina studied the Russian language in high school. Although she was not fluent, she did accumulate a large vocabulary. Years later, she decided to go to Russia, so she wanted to brush up on her vocabulary. She picked up the vocabulary much more quickly because:
it is easier to relearn; that is, to learn the material for a second time.
of the implicit memory effect.
it is easier for adults to learn a language.
of the serial position effect.
james
_____ referred to priming as the “wakening of associations.”
priming
In the process of retrieving a specific memory from a web of associations, a person needs to activate one of the strands that leads to it. This known as:
implicit
Our unconscious capacity for learning how to do something is known as _____ memory.
working
_____ memory associates new and old information and solves problems.
short term
This activated memory holds a few items such as a phone number briefly before the information is stored or forgotten.
immediate memory
sensory memory
short-term memory
long-term memory
explicit
Our memory of facts and experiences that we consciously know and can easily recite is known as _____ memory.
sensory
Which stage of memory involves the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system?
long-term memory
short-term memory
sensory memory
flashbulb memory
long-term memory
This is a relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of your memory system.
long-term memory
immediate memory
short-term memory
sensory memory
short term memory
In the movie Memento, the main character has to write everything on his body and take notes, otherwise he quickly forgets. This is because he has sustained an injury that has left him without:
long-term memory.
echoic memory.
short-term memory.
flashbulb memory.
reflect a persons biases and assumptions
Research on memory construction reveals that memories:
reflect a person’s biases and assumptions.
are stored as exact copies of experience.
even if long term, usually decay within about five years.
may be chemically transferred from one organism to another.
minimize retrieval cues
Which of the following is NOT a way to improve memory?
sleep more
use mnemonic devices
make the material meaningful
minimize retrieval cues
source amnesia
_____ occurs when we mistakenly attribute a memory.
Source amnesia
Blocking
Infantile amnesia
Mood-congruent memory
debated
Whether or not repressed memories can be retrieved by certain therapist-aided techniques is _____.
false memories
Repeatedly imagining nonexistent actions and events is called imagination inflation and can create _____.
constructed
Because memories are _____, “hypnotically refreshed” memories may prove inaccurate, especially if the hypnotist asks leading questions.
encoded
constructed
proactive
state-dependent
misinformation effect
_____ occurs when one incorporates misleading information into one’s memory of an event.
The misinformation effect
Persistence
Priming
Transience
overconfidant
Our ability to recognize material can make us feel _____, which might lead to poorer performance on certain tests.
source amnesia
Lonnie often has vivid dreams. In the morning, he can recall them in great detail. This sometimes gets him in trouble, because he can’t figure out if he is remembering a dream or something that he actually experienced. This problem is known as _____.
improving
SQ3R is a method for _____ memory.
source misattribution
Six months after a patient committed suicide, your attorney is asking if the patient called you before committing the act. You respond that the patient did not. Three months later, opposing counsel asks you similar questions and you respond that the patient did call you, confusing this patient with one of your current patients. This is an example of:
the self-reference effect.
mood-congruent memory.
proactive interference.
source misattribution.
elizabeth
Which researcher conducted experiments to better understand false memories of childhood traumas?
Karl Jung
Sigmund Freud
Karl Lashley
Elizabeth Loftus
source amnesia
t is not uncommon for us to recognize a person, but to have no idea where we met him or her. Or, we may HEAR something but later recall instead that we SAW it. This type of misattribution is known as:
transience.
source amnesia.
persistence.
priming.
whether “repressed” memories of childhood abuse that are “recovered” using hypnosis, guided imagery, or other highly suggestive techniques are false memories or memories of actual experiences.
The controversy regarding claims of repressed and recovered memories is best described as involving:
price-gouging by pharmaceutical companies that have developed memory-enhancing medications for people with repressed memories. [[Although this may be true, it is not the best answer.]
whether the hippocampus or the prefrontal cortex is the main brain area in which repressed memories are processed.
whether “repressed” memories of childhood abuse that are “recovered” using hypnosis, guided imagery, or other highly suggestive techniques are false memories or memories of actual experiences.
whether deception should be used in studies that involve creating false memories in the participants.
inflation
Repeatedly imagining nonexistent actions and events is called imagination _____ and can create false memories.
Most psychologists who are experts in memory strongly encourage the use of hypnosis or guided imagery to increase the accuracy of the recovered memories of abuse.
According to the text discussion about the recovery of repressed memories, which of the following statements is FALSE?
Most psychologists who are experts in memory believe that it is very unlikely that anyone could repress all memories of repeated incidents of sexual abuse.
False memories can seem just as vivid, detailed, and accurate as real memories.
Most psychologists who are experts in memory strongly encourage the use of hypnosis or guided imagery to increase the accuracy of the recovered memories of abuse.
Rather than repressed and unavailable memories, most people who have survived a traumatic event are troubled by recurring memories, thoughts, and flashbacks of the traumatic event.
imagination inflation
When people repeatedly imagine nonexistent actions and events, they can inadvertently create false memories. In one experiment students were asked to repeatedly imagine breaking a toothpick. Following this, they were more likely to think they had actually broken a toothpick. This is known as:
retroactive interference.
imagination inflation.
linguistic determinism.
source amnesia.
weak;exercised
New memories are _____; they need to be _____ if one wants to remember them.
strong; rehearsed
weak; exercised
misunderstood; practiced
strong; applied
false memories
Stephen Ceci and Maggie Bruck found that most preschoolers and many older children could be induced to report:
mixed emotions.
false memories.
daily events sequentially.
positive affect.
could not tell real memories from fake, nor could the children
It has been demonstrated that professional psychologists who specialize in interviewing children :
could tell real memories from fake, along with the children.
could not tell real memories from fake, but the children could.
could not tell real memories from fake, nor could the children.
could tell real memories from fake, but the children could not.

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