Chapter 8: Politics, Immigration, and Urban Life (1870-1915)

question

*The Gilded Age
answer

A term coined by Mark Twain to describe the post-Reconstruction era.
question

*Laissez-faire
answer

Doctrine stating that government generally should not interfere in private business
question

Subsidy
answer

A payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain key industries
question

*Blue law
answer

Regulation that prohibited certain private activities people considered immoral, such as drinking alcohol on Sundays
question

*Civil service
answer

The government’s non-elected workers
question

Pendleton Civil Service Act
answer

1883 law that created Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds or be fired for political reasons
question

Rebate
answer

A partial refund
question

Munn v. Illinois
answer

1877 Supreme Court decision that allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders
question

Pogrom
answer

Violent massacre of Jews
question

*Steerage
answer

A large open area beneath the ship’s deck, often used to house traveling immigrants
question

Quarantine
answer

A time of isolation to prevent the spread of a disease
question

*Ghetto
answer

Area in which one ethnic or racial group dominates
question

Restrictive covenant
answer

Agreement among homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people.
question

*Chinese Exclusion Act
answer

Law passed in 1882 that prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country, but did not prevent entry of those who had previously established U.S. residence
question

Gentlemen’s Agreement
answer

1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration
question

Alien
answer

A noncitizen
question

*Suburb
answer

Residential community surrounding a city
question

*Tenement
answer

A low-cost apartment building that often has poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort, and is designed to house as many families as possible
question

Dumbbell tenement
answer

A tenement building that narrowed in the middle, forming air shafts on either side and allowing light and air into the rooms
question

*Political machine
answer

An unofficial city organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power and unusually headed by a single, powerful boss
question

*Graft
answer

Use of one’s job to gain profit; a major source of income for political machines
question

Social gospel movement
answer

A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society
question

*Settlement house
answer

Community center organized to provide various services to the urban poor
question

Sociology
answer

Termed coined by philosopher Auguste Comte to describe the study of how people interact with one another in society
question

*Nativism
answer

A policy of favoring native-born Americans over immigrants
question

Temperance movement
answer

An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption
question

*Prohibition
answer

A ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages
question

Vice
answer

Immoral or corrupt behavior
question

How did business influence politicians during the Gilded Age?
answer

The laissez-faire approach to business meant that business favored high tariffs on imported goods to encourage people to buy American goods instead. They also began to accept land grants and subsidies, to ensure that they continued to receive these, they would give money to politicians.
question

What problems did the spoils system create?
answer

The problem was that Jackson would put people into office that were not qualified, so jobs were not being done.
question

Why did so many people want to come to the United States between 1870 and 1915?
answer

The immigrants who came to the United States between 1870 and 1915 were seeking a better life. They were fleeing poverty and looking for new opportunities.
question

Starting in the 1890s, where did large numbers of immigrants come from?
answer

After the 1880s, immigrants increasingly came from Eastern and Southern European countries, as well as Canada and Latin America. By 1910, Eastern and Southern Europeans made up 70 percent of the immigrants entering the country.
question

How did slums develop in cities?
answer

Although specific reasons for slum development vary from city to city, the underlying reason for slum development is poverty.
question

What were the advantages and disadvantages of political machines for urban residents?
answer

Advantage of political machines was it provided order and was a strong bargaining position. Disadvantage-cause of corruption
question

How did the settlement movement seek to help the needy?
answer

The settlement movement’s main objective was the establishment of “settlement houses” in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middle-class would live, hoping to share knowledge & culture with, & alleviate the poverty of those with low-income.
question

What actions did nativists take to restrict immigration?
answer

The immigrants had to go through immigration stations such as Ellis Island and Angel Island. Where they were checked for disease, and had to go through a government inspector to see if they met the legal requirements for entering the United states. Which included proving they had never been convited of a felony, demonstrating that they were able to work, and showing that they had some money. Some immigrants would be held for days, months, and even some up to a year for inspection.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member