Chapter 8 Covalent Bonding Study Guide: McGraw Hill Textbook

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When sharing of electrons occurs the attachment between atoms is called
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covalent bond
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in a covelant bond, the dissociation energy is released in the process of
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exothermic reaction
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When 2 or more atoms bond by means of electron sharing – the result is
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a molecule
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shared electrons are centered between the 2 atoms in covalent bonding, the attachment is called
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a sigma bond
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in covalent bonding with there is an overlap of parallel orbitals – this type of attachment occurs
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pi bond
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In what form do electrons such as hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen normally occur
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as molecules containing 2 atoms
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How many electrons are shared in a double covelant bond?
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four
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bond length is the distance between
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the nuclei of 2 attached atoms
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which form of relationships relating to bond length is normally correct?
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shorter = stronger
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True of False: Binary molecular compounds are generally composed of a metal & a nonmetal
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false
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True of False: The 2nd element in the formula of a binary compound is named using the suffix – ite
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false
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True of False: The prefix “tetra-” means 3 atoms
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false
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True of False: The prefix “hexa-” means 6 atoms
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true
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True or False: When naming the 1st element in a formula, the prefix “mono-” is not used
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true
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True or False: For binary acids, the hydrogen part of the compound is named using the prefix “hydro-“
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true
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True of False: An oxyacid contains 2 elements
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false
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True of False: If the name of the anion of an oxyacid inds in “-ate”, the acid name ends in “-ous”
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false
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what is CO
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carbon monoxide
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what is CO2
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carbon dioxide
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what is H2CO3
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carbonic acid
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what is NH3
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ammonia
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what is N2O4
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dinitrogen tetroxide
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what is HNO2
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nitrous acid
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What is HNO3
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nitric acid
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what is HBr
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hydrobromic acid
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what is HBrO3
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bromic acid
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T/F: A structural formula shows the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule
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true
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T/F: the central atom in a molecule is the one with the higher electron affinity
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false
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T/F: in molecules, hydrogen is always a terminal atom
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true
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T/F: the number of bonding pairs in a molecule is = to the number of electrons
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false
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T/F: to find the total number of electrons available for bonding in a + ion, you should + the ion charge to the total number of valence electrons of the atoms present
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false
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T/F: the electrons in a coordinate covelant bond are donated by both the bonded atoms
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false
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T/F: resonance occurs when more than 1 valid Lewis structure can be written for a molecule
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true
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T/F: Nitrate is an example of an ion that forms resonance structures
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true
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T/F: The carbon dioxide molecule contains 2 double bonds
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true
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T/F: all electrons in an atom are available for bonding
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false
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T/F: in the sulfate ion (SO42-), 32 electrons are available for bonding
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true
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T/F: when carbon and oxygen bond, the molecule contains 10 pairs of bonding electrons
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false
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O3
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more than one valid Lewis structure
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BF3
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fewer than 8 electrons around central atom
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NO
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odd number of valence electrons
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SF6
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more than 8 electrons around central atoms
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what determines molecular shape
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VSEPR model
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bond angle is an angle between
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2 terminal atoms and the central atom
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VSEPR model is based on what idea
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shared and unshared electron pairs repel each other as much as possible
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tetrahedral molecule
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molecule shape that has central atom with 4 pairs of bonding electrons
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linear molecule
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molecule shape that has 2 covelant single bonds and no lone pairs on the central atom
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trigonal pyramidal molecule
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molecule shape that has 3 single covalent bonds and 1 lone pair on the central atom
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hybridization
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the formation of new orbitals from a combination or rearrangement of valence electrons
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in hybridization
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orbitals are identical to each other. Carbon is an element that undergoes hybridization commonly
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sp3
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atom combining 3 p orbitals and its 1 s orbital in hybridization. Example of this is methane
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electronegativity
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the tendency of an atom to attract electrons
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element with highest electronegativity and its numerical value
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flourine; 3.98
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name and group # of the family with highest overall electronegativities
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halogens, group 7A
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element with the lowest electronegativity and its numerical value
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francium; 0.7
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Name and group # of the chemical family that has the lowest overall electronegativities
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alkali metals; Group 1A
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T/F: Ionic compounds are usually soluble in polar substances
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T
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T/F: in a covelant molecular compound, the attraction between molecules tends to be strong
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F
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Polarity: polar covalent bond
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unequal sharing of electrons between the 2 bonded atoms always indicates this
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Polarity: ionic bond
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when electronegativities of 2 bonded atoms differ greatly
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Polarity: Difference of 1.7
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electronegativity difference that usually is the dividing line between covalent and ionic bonds
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symbol for the less negative atom in a polar covalent bond
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has a + sign; opposite so the more negative has a –
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a nonpolar covalent bond is on that
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has electrons that are share equally
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molecules containing only polar covalent bonds
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may or may not be polar
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what factor other than electonegativity determines whether a molecule as a whole is polar or not?
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its geometry – not temperature, physical state or mass
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Best description of the compound of water, H2O
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polar overall, with polar covalent bonds
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Best description of the compound of tetrachloride, CCl4
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nonpolar overall, with polar covalent bonds
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A molecule of ammonia, NH3, is
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polar b/c there is an electronegativity difference & the molecule is trigonal pyramid

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