Chapter 8.1

question

What is the overall equation for photosynthesis?
answer

Light+CO2+H2O Sugar (C6H12O6) and Oz
question

What is used and made in the light reactions?
answer

Used:light and water Made: O2, ATP, NADPH
question

What is used and made in the calvin cycle?
answer

Used: CO2, ATP, and NADPH, Made: sugar
question

What gets made in the light reactions and used in the calvin cycle?
answer

ATP and NADPH
question

List the electromagnetic energy from shortest wavelength to the longest.
answer

Gamma, X-ray, UV, Visible Light, infrared, microwave, radio
question

List the colors of light in the visible spectrum from shortest wavelength to longest.
answer

violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red.
question

What is a pigment?
answer

A substance that absorbs, reflects, of transmits light.
question

What is a photosystem?
answer

A group of pigments, chlorophyll A and B and accessory pigments (xanophyll and carotene), that work together to absorb sunlight.
question

What is the relationship between energy and wavelength?
answer

They are indirectly proportional, as wavelength increases energy decreases.
question

What type of elcetromagnetic energy has the most energy? The least?
answer

Gamma(most energy);Radio(least energy)
question

What color of light has the most energy? The least
answer

Violet (the most) Red (the least)
question

What wavelengths of light are absorbed by Chlorophyll A? Reflected?
answer

420-440 (absorbed) 440- 600 (ish) reflected
question

What wavelengths of light are absorbed by chlorophyll B?
answer

right around 460 Reflected? 480-600 (ish)
question

What is chromatography?
answer

seperation technique
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What is solution?
answer

Homogenous mixture
question

What is solvent?
answer

The substance that does the dissolving
question

Solute?
answer

substance that gets dissolved
question

What determines the rate and distance a pigment travels?
answer

The polarity of the pigment how well it dissolves in the solvent and the attraction of the pigment to the chromatography paper.
question

Is chromatography paper polar or nonpolar? Is the solvent used in the lab polar or nonpolar?
answer

Polar; The solvent used in the lab is non-polar.
question

Do polar or nonpolar pigments travel further? Why?
answer

Non-polar because they dissolve in the solvent and move with the solvent front up the chromatography paper.
question

Which plant pigment is the most polar?
answer

Chlorophyll B Most non-polar? Carotene
question

How do you calculate the RF value of a pigment?
answer

Solute (pigment) distance/ solvent front distance
question

What is the range of possible RF values?
answer

0-1
question

If the RF value is closer to 1 is the pigment polar or non-polar Why?
answer

Non-polar. The pigment dissolved in the nonpolar solvent and traveled with the solvent front.
question

If the RF value is closer to 0 is the pigment polar or nonpolar Why?
answer

Polar. The pigment did not dissolve in the nonpolar solvent and therefore did not travel with the solvent front.
question

Describe how the internal structures of the leaf are adapted to photosynthesis.
answer

Palisade layer collects sunlight. Vein transports water to leaf. Spongy mesophyll collects CO2.
question

What structure prevents water loss from the leaf?
answer

Non-polar cuticle
question

Which layer is very dense with cells and contains high amounts of chloroplast?
answer

Palisade layer
question

What are the 3 main types of tissue in a leaf?
answer

Mesophyll, Epedermis, and veins (vascular tissue)
question

Which layer contains no chloroplast?
answer

Upper epedermis
question

What cells control the opening and closing of the stomata?
answer

Guard Cells. Do they have a chloroplast? Yes
question

What cells are found in a vein? What do they transport?
answer

Xylem- water transport Pholem-sugar transport
question

Which layer has numerous air spaces?
answer

Spongy Layer
question

Describe the mesophyll.
answer

Region of the leaf between the upper and lower epedermis. Contains the palisade layer and spongy layer

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