Chapter 7 – Teamwork and Team Building

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Team
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small groups with complementary skills, who work together as a unit to achieve a common purpose Hold themselves collectively accountable
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Group
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a number of people who interact with one another for a common purpose individual contributions
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Advantages of Teams
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Compared to individuals, teams: – better decisions – better products + services – better info sharing – increased motivation/engagement
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Team challenges
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– individuals can be better/faster at some tasks – process losses: cost of developing teams – companies may not provide a good environment – social loafing
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3 levels of teamwork
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1. Team task level – teams are organized to carry out a specific task or goal 2. Individual needs level – each group members individual needs impinge upon the team and its task 3. Team maintenance level – to accomplish tasks teams needed to recognize + maintain relationships
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Effective Teams
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Require O direction, purpose + task clarity Understand value of working jointly; able to disagree Blend of technical, task, leadership abilities Take pride in benefits
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Team Effectiveness Model
Team Effectiveness Model
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Stages of Team Development
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Team Member Competencies
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Co-operating: share resources; accommodate others Conflict resolution Comforting: empathy, confidence, psychological support Communicating: share information, listen actively Coordinating: align work with others, keep team on track
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Team Design
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Advantages: – different perspectives of problems + solutions – broader knowledge – better representation of constituents Disadvantages: – takes longer to become high performing – susceptible to fault lines – increased risk of dysfunctional conflict
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Trust
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Identification based: based on common mental models + values, increases with team social identity Knowledge based: based on predictability and competence Calculus based: based on deterrence; fragile and limited potential
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Effective Teams at Google
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Psychological Safety: feel safe to take risks and be vulnerable Dependability: get things done, meet high bar for excellence Structure + Clarity: members have clear plans, roles and goals Meaning: work is personally important Impact: think their work matters + creates change
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Barriers to Team Effectiveness
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– lack of senior management commitment – ambiguous O alignment – inadequate rewards system; skills; resources; information; team size; HRD; info systems
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Team Building
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Sequence of planned action steps designed to gather + analyze data on the functioning of a group, and implement changes to increase effectiveness Fosters teamwork
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Team Building Process
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Clarify core values and direct behavior Transform general to specific performance objectives Develop skill mix to give high performance results Enhance creativity in task performance
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Skill Team Leaders
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Build trust and inspire teamwork Create a team identity Facilitate and support team decisions Expand team capabilities Make the most of team differences Foresee and influence change
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Effective Team Facilitators
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Gain appreciation of complexity + dynamics Identify team needs Create a safe and open forum Foster interdependence, creativity + open communication Encourage necessary choices Address ‘light’ and ‘dark’ sides of team building
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Teamwork Training
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1. problem/opportunity awareness 2. data gathering/analysis 3. action planning 4. implementation 5. evaluation
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Development Activities – Training
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Experiential activities: encourage active info processing Challenging viewpoints: helps members overcome resistance to change Consensual decision making: general agreement all members support Brainstorming: members actively generate as many ideas as possible
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Timing + Location of Training
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Formal retreats: organized offsite, 2-7 days. Planning and experiential activities Continual improvement: managers take responsibility for regularly engaging the team building process Outdoor experiences: physical tests/obstacles
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Team Performance and Cohesiveness
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Influenced by: NORMS: rules/standards of behavior that members are expected to display ROLE: set of expectations for the behavior of a person in a particular position
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Role Expectation Issues
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ROLE AMBIGUITY: when a member is unsure of what other members expect of them ROLE CONFLICT: when a member is unable to respond to group expectations
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Team cohesiveness
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Degree members are attracted to + motivated to remain a team Influenced by shared experiences and commitment
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What influences team cohesion?
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Trust Conflict Management
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What are effective teams characterized by?
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empowerment, participation, involvement
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What are 4 typical types of teams?
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Employee Involvement Problem Solving Self Managing Virtual
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Employee Involvement Teams
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Meet regularly outside of normal work units to collectively addressing issues 5-10 members Mechanism for employee participation; seek to foster quality management + continuous improvements
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Problem Solving Teams
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For generating solutions to problems Quality circles Task forces Autonomous
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Self Managing Teams
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Small groups of people empowered to manage themselves and their daily work
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Virtual Team
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Members work inter-dependently towards the achievement of a common goal across space + time DISTINGUISHED BY: dependence on technology; absence of non-verbal cues, place and timing of interaction + degree of public and private communication
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Future challenges for teams
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Empowerment through new technology Trust: usually need face to face contact Accountability Diversity: hard to manage diverse teams Self-leadership: debate about whether there should be team leaders or if team members should be equipped to self-lead

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