Chapter 7 Sociology Study Guide: Payton Temple

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The chapter-opening story of the McDonald’s organization explains
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That the organizational principles of McDonald’s have come to dominate our social life
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What do sociologists call two or more people who identify and interact with one another?
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Social group
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What is the correct sociological term for all people with a common status, such as “college students.”
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Category
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Imagine you are watching several dozen passengers sitting in an airport gate area waiting to board a plane. These people are an example of a:
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Crowd
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Charles Cooley referred to a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships as:
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Primary group
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What is every society’s most important primary group?
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Family
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Assume you are one of many people assembled at a university graduation ceremony. The term that best describes this gathering is a:
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Secondary group
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What is an example of a secondary group?
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Microsoft Corporation awards banquet
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What is the term for group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks?
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Instrumental leadership
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What concept refers to group leadership that emphasizes collective well-being?
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Expressive leadership
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Which type of leadership style takes charge of making decisions and makes sure people do what they are told?
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Authoritarian leadership
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Which type of leaders encourage everyone in a group to have a say in what happens?
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Democratic leader
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Solomon Asch found that many people are willing to compromise their own judgment…
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To avoid the discomfort of being different, even from people we don’t know
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Stanley Milgram’s research, in which subjects used a “shock generator,” showed:
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People are surprisingly likely to follow the orders of not only real authority figures but also groups of ordinary individuals
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What is the sociological term coined by Irving Janis for a limited understanding of some issue resulting from group conformity?
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Groupthink
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Samuel Stouffer’s study of soldier morale during World War II led to what conclusion?
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Whatever people’s situation in absolute terms, their sense of well-being comes form looking at themselves in relation to a specific reference group
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Which type of social group commands a member’s esteem and loyalty?
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In-group
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A social group toward which a person feels competition or opposition is which of the following?
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Out-group
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Which concept refers to a social group with only two members?
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Dyad
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The concept “triad” refers to what?
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Social group with three members
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Which sociological concept refers to a number of weak social ties among persons who have little common identity and little interaction?
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Social network
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In general, which categories of people are “well connected” in terms of social networks?
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Young people, well-educated people, people living in cities
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Formal organizations are:
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Large secondary groups with a goal orientation
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If you were a prisoner, a maximum-security prison would be which of the following types of organizations from your point of view?
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Coercive organization
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The concept “bureaucracy” refers to:
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Organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently
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What are Max Weber’s traits of bureaucracy
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1. Specialization 2. Hierarchy of offices 3. Rules and regulations 4. Technical competence 5. Impersonality 6. Formal, written communications
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What concept refers to all factors outside an organization that affect the organization’s operation?
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Organization environment
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Max Weber argued that formal organizations were efficient, but he cautioned that they can have harmful effects on people. What is the danger?
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Organizations create alienation
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What is Robert Merton’s term for a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of keeping an organization from accomplishing its goals?
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Bureaucratic ritualism
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The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves—to keep themselves going—is called:
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Bureaucratic inertia
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In the “iron law of oligarchy,” Robert Michels stated:
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Bureaucracy always means the few rule the many
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The basic idea behind scientific management is that:
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Applying scientific principles can make a business more efficient
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According to Deborah Tannen, what traits make up a “female advantage”?
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A greater “information focus” & more readily ask questions in order to understand an issue
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During the last 50 years, Japanese formal organizations have differed from those in the United States by being:
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More collective in their orientation
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Today’s business organizations in the United States differ from those a century ago in a number of ways. Which of the following is NOT a way in which today’s U.S. business organizations differ from those a century ago?
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THEY DO: 1. Creative autonomy 2. Competitive work teams 3. A flatter organization 4. Greater flexibility
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Think about the process of McDonaldization. What are the traits linked to McDonaldization
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Efficiency, ability to calculate results, control through automation
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The concept “McDonaldization of society” refers to:
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The process through which the principles of fast-food restaurants have come to dominate certain sectors of society, both in the United States and throughout the world
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The text speaks of “opposing trends” in today’s world of formal organizations because:
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Some organizations have evolved toward flatter, more flexible forms, but others remain rigid organizations patterned by McDonald’s

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