Chapter 6 – Chemical Bonding

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chemical bond
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a mutual electrical attraction between the nuclei and valence electrons of different atoms that binds the atoms together
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ionic bonding
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the chemical bond resulting from electrical attraction between large numbers of cations and anions
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covalent bonding
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a chemical bond resulting from the sharing of an electron pair between two atoms
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nonpolar-covalent bond
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a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are shared equally by the bonded atoms, resulting in a balance of electrical charge
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polar
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having an uneven distribution of charge
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polar-covalent bond
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a covalent bond in which the bonded atoms have an unequal attraction for the shared electrons
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molecule
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a neutral group of atoms that are held together by covalent bonds
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molecular compound
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a chemical compound whose simplest units are molecules
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chemical formula
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a formula that indicates the relative numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compund by using atomic symbols and numerical subscripts
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molecular formula
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a formula showing the types and numbers of atoms combined in a single molecule of a molecular compound
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diatomic molecule
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a molecule containing only two atoms
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bond length
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the distance between two bonded atoms at their minimum potential energy, that is, the average distance between two bonded atoms
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bond energy
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the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral isolated atoms
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octet rule
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chemical compounds tend to form so that each atom, by gaining, losing, or sharing electrons, has an octet of electrons in its highest occupied energy level
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electron-dot notation
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an electron-configuration notation in which only the valence electrons of an atom of a particular element are shown, indicated by dots placed around the element’s symbol
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unshared pair
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a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
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lone pair
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a pair of electrons that is not involved in bonding and that belongs exclusively to one atom
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Lewis structure
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a formula in which atomic symbols represent nuclei and inner-shell electrons, dot-pairs or dashes between two atomic symbols represent electron pairs in covalent bonds, and dots adjacent to only one atomic symbol represent unshared electrons
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structural formula
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a formula that indicates the kind, number, arrangement, and bonds but not the unshared electron pairs of the atoms in a molecule
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single bond
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a covalent bond produced by the sharing of one pair of electrons between two atoms
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double bond
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a covalent bond produced by the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two atoms
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triple bond
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a covalent bond produced by the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two atoms
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multiple bond
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a double or triple bond
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resonance
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the bonding in molecules or ions that cannot be correctly represented by a single Lewis structure
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ionic compound
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a compound composed of positive and negative ions that are combined so that the numbers of positive and negative charges are equal
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formula unit
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the simplest collection of atoms from which an ionic compound’s formula can be established
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lattice energy
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the energy released when one mole of an ionic crystalline compound is formed from gaseous ions
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polyatomic ion
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a charged group of covalently bonded atoms
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metallic bonding
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chemical bonding that results from the attraction between metal atoms and the surrounding sea of electrons
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malleability
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the ability of a substance to be hammered or beaten into thin sheets
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ductility
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the ability of a substance to be drawn, pulled, or extruded through a small opening to produce a wire
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molecular polarity
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the uneven distribution of molecular charge
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VSEPR theory
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repulsion between the sets of valence-level electrons surrounding an atom causes these sets to oriented as far apart as possible
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hybridization
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the mixing of two or more atomic oribitals of similar energies on the same atom to produce new orbitals of equal energies
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hybrid orbitals
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orbitals of equal energy produced by the combination of two or more orbitals on the same atom
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intermolecular forces
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the force of attraction between molecules
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dipole
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equal but opposite charges that are separated by a short distance
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dipole-dipole force
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a force of attraction between polar molecules
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hydrogen bonding
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the intermolecular force in which a hydrogen atom that is bonded to a highly electronegative atom is attracted to an unshared pair of electrons of an electronegative atom in a nearby molecule
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London dispersion force
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an intermolecular attraction resulting from the constant motion of electrons and the creation of instantaneous dipoles

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