Chapter 6: Behaviorist and Learning Aspects

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partial reinforcement
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a reward that occurs after some, but not all, occurrences of a behavior
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Pavlov studying dogs
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unconditioned stimulus (food) leading to unconditioned response (salivation)
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generalization
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conditioned responses can occur in responce to stimuli SIMILAR TO the conditioned stimulus and NOT to similar stimuli
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discrimination
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learning to tell difference between stimuli, responding only to conditioned stimulus and NOT to similar stimuli
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extinction
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pairing of the conditioned and unconditioned stimulus stops; gradual decrease in response to conditioned stimulus
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classical conditioning can be used to explain emotional aspects of personality like
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neurotic behavior phobias superstitious behavior
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John B. Watson
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founded behaviorism applied conditioning principles to humans rejection of introspection Tabula rasa approach
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behaviorism
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study of observable behavior
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rejection of introspection
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thoughts and feelings elicited through introspection are unobservable and unscientific
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Example of Baby Albert
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US (loud noise) lead to UR (cry) neutral stimulus (white rat) and US (loud noise) lead to UR (cry) CS (white rat) lead to CR (cry)
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Personality is…
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a group of response to the environment
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radical determinism
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belief that all human behavior is caused and that humans have no free will
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operant conditioning
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changing of behavior by manipulating its consequences
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reinforcement
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if preceding response INCREASES after the consequence occurs
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punishment
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if preceding response DECREASES after the consequence occurs
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Walden Two
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novel where a utopian community is behaviorally engineered based on operant conditioning. the government rewards (reinforces) positive, socially appropriate behavior.
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by using operant conditioning
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people are able to LEARN to reduce negative behaviors
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Clark Hull
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responsible for experimentation, organized theory of learning and the nature of habits
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habits
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associations between a stimulus and a response
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role of drive alleviation
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organism makes responses that lead to a goal; these responses in themselves become stimuli and response
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social learning theory
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proposes that habits are built up in terms of s hierarchy of secondary drives
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habit hierarchy
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personality is the probability that particular responses will occur
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Dollard and Miller
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combined psychoanalytic theory and behaviorism
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secondary drives
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drives that are learned by association with the satisfaction of primary drives
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primary drives
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fundamental innate motivator of behavior specifically, hunger, thirst, sex or pain
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frustration-aggression hypothesis
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theory that aggression occurs as a result of blocking efforts to attain a goal
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approach-avoidance conflict
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conflict between primary and secondary drives that occurs when a punishment results in the conditioning of a fear response to a drive
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approach-approach conflict
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conflict in which a person is drawn to two equally attractive choices
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avoidance-approach conflict
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conflict in which a person is faced with two qually undesirable choices
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modern behaviorist approaches
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limitation to observable behavior is inconsistent with focus of most personality approaches
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reinforcement sensitivity theory
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connects individual differences in nervous system to response to reward versus punishment
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REWARD works through
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behavior activation system (BAS)
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PUNISHMENT works through
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behavior inhibition system (BIS)
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act frequency approach
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assessing personality by examining the frequency with which a person performs certain observable actions
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behaviorist and learning approach: advantages
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requires rigorous empirical study looks for general laws that apply to all organism forces attention to the environmental influences on behavior
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behaviorist and learning approach: limits
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ignores insights and advances from cognitive and social psychology may tend to dehumanize unique human potentials explains all differences between individuals as a consequence of their reinforcement histories views humans as objects to be trained
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behaviorist and learning approach: view of free will
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behavior is determined by environmental contingencies
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behaviorist and learning approach: common assessment technique
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experimental analysis of learning (often in non-human animals)
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behaviorist and learning approach: implications for therapy
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personality is conditioned and learned, so therapy is based on teaching desirable habits and behaviors, plus extinguishing undesirable ones

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