Chapter 5: The Integumentary System

question

The apocrine sweat glands are fairly unimportant in thermoregulation.
answer

TRUE
question

Skin surface markings that reflect points of tight dermal attachment to underlying tissues are called epidermal ridges.
answer

FALSE
question

The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.
answer

TRUE
question

The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.
answer

FALSE
question

Destruction of the matrix of the hair bulb would result in its inability to produce oil.
answer

FALSE
question

The hyponychium is commonly called the cuticle.
answer

FALSE
question

The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis.
answer

FALSE
question

During the resting phase of hair growth, the matrix is inactive and the follicle atrophies.
answer

TRUE
question

The most dangerous skin cancer is cancer of the melanocytes.
answer

TRUE
question

The skin is not able to receive stimuli because the cells of the epidermis are not living and therefore there are no sensory receptors in the skin.
answer

FALSE
question

The dermis is rich in blood vessels and nerve fibers.
answer

TRUE
question

The hypodermis is composed of adipose and dense connective tissue.
answer

FALSE
question

A physician is often able to detect homeostatic imbalances in the body by observing changes in the skin color.
answer

TRUE
question

When an individual is exposed to extremely low air temperatures, the dermal blood vessels will dilate so that blood and heat will be dissipated.
answer

FALSE
question

Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.
answer

TRUE
question

Ceruminous glands are modified merocrine glands.
answer

FALSE
question

The stratum corneum (outermost layer of skin) is a zone of approximately four layers of viable cells that are able to synthesize proteins that keep the outer layer of skin smooth and soft.
answer

FALSE
question

The pinkish hue of individuals with fair skin is the result of the crimson color of oxygenated hemoglobin (contained in red blood cells) circulating in the dermal capillaries and reflecting through the epidermis.
answer

TRUE
question

Hair growth and density are influenced by hormones, nutrition, and, in some cases, lifestyle.
answer

TRUE
question

Sweat glands continuously produce small amounts of sweat, even in cooler temperatures.
answer

TRUE
question

Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer. A) Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant. B) Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum. C) Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant. D) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
answer

D) Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
question

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order? A) basale, spinosum, granulosum, corneum B) basale, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum C) granulosum, basale, spinosum, corneum D) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
answer

D) corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
question

The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________. A) medulla B) cortex C) external root sheath D) cuticle
answer

C) external root sheath
question

Acne is a disorder associated with ________. A) sweat glands B) sebaceous glands C) Meibomian glands D) ceruminous glands
answer

B) sebaceous glands
question

The dermis ________. A) is an avascular connective tissue layer B) has two layers C) lacks sensory corpuscles and glands D) is where melanocytes are found
answer

B) has two layers
question

Which muscles attached to the hair follicles cause goose bumps? A) arrector integument B) arrector pili C) levator folliculi D) arrector folliculi
answer

B) arrector pili
question

Which of the following cutaneous receptors is specialized for the reception of touch or light pressure? A) Meissner’s corpuscles B) Pacinian corpuscles C) free nerve endings D) Krause’s end bulbs
answer

A) Meissner’s corpuscles
question

Which of the following is a skin sensory receptor for touch? A) Pacinian corpuscle B) Meissner’s corpuscle C) Ruffini body D) free nerve ending
answer

B) Meissner’s corpuscle
question

Which statement correctly explains why hair appears the way it does? A) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts. B) Perfectly round hair shafts result in wavy hair. C) Air bubbles in the hair shaft cause straight hair. D) Gray hair is the result of hormonal action altering the chemical composition of melanin.
answer

A) Kinky hair has flat, ribbonlike hair shafts.
question

Sudoriferous glands vary in distribution over the surface of the body. Which of the following is correct? A) Eccrine are the most numerous, being found primarily in the axillary regions. B) Apocrine glands are larger than eccrine, and empty secretions directly to the surface of the skin. C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects. D) Mammary glands are not considered a modified sweat gland.
answer

C) Ceruminous glands secrete cerumen, which is thought to deter insects.
question

Although the integument is a covering, it is by no means simple, and some of its functions include ________. A) the dermis providing the major mechanical barrier to chemicals, water, and other external substances B) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system C) cooling the body by increasing the action of sebaceous glands during high-temperature conditions D) epidermal blood vessels serving as a blood reservoir
answer

B) resident macrophage-like cells whose function is to ingest antigenic invaders and present them to the immune system
question

The function of the root hair plexus is to ________. A) serve as a source for new epidermal cells for hair growth after the resting stage has passed B) bind the hair root to the dermis C) cause apocrine gland secretion into the hair follicle D) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
answer

D) allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
question

The ________ gland is a modified sudoriferous gland that secretes wax. A) eccrine B) apocrine C) ceruminous D) mammary
answer

C) ceruminous
question

Nutrients reach the surface of the skin (epidermis) through the process of ________. A) absorbing materials applied to the surface layer of the skin B) utilizing the products of merocrine glands to nourish the epidermis C) filtration D) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
answer

D) diffusing through the tissue fluid from blood vessels in the dermis
question

The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________. A) it is located just below the epidermis and protects the dermis from shock B) it has no delicate nerve endings and can therefore absorb more shock C) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber D) the cells that make up the hypodermis secrete a protective mucus
answer

C) the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
question

Keratinocytes are an important epidermal cell because they ________. A) produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties B) are able to transform from living cells to plasma membranes and still function C) are able to reproduce sporadically as needed D) are a powerful defense against damaging UV rays
answer

A) produce a fibrous protein that gives the skin much of its protective properties
question

Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________. A) provide the melanocyte with a protective shield against abrasion B) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer C) maintain the appropriate pH in order for the melanocyte to synthesize melanin granules D) maintain the appropriate temperature so the product of the melanocyte will not denature
answer

B) accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
question

The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement? A) stratum corneum B) stratum granulosum C) stratum basale D) stratum lucidum
answer

C) stratum basale
question

The integumentary system is protected by the action of cells that arise from bone marrow and migrate to the epidermis. Which of the following cells serve this function? A) cells found in the stratum spinosum B) macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells C) keratinocytes, because they are so versatile D) tactile cells
answer

B) macrophages called epidermal dendritic cells
question

Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the following protects us against excessive water loss through the skin? A) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces. B) The size and shape of the cells that make up the stratum spinosum, as well as the thick bundles of intermediate filaments. C) The dermis is the thickest portion of the skin and water cannot pass through it. D) Fat associated with skin prevents water loss.
answer

A) Lamellated granules of the cells of the stratum granulosum, a glycolipid that is secreted into extracellular spaces.
question

The dermis is a strong, flexible connective tissue layer. Which of the following cell types are likely to be found in the dermis? A) goblet cells, parietal cells, and Kupffer cells B) monocytes, reticulocytes, and osteocytes C) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells D) osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and epithelial cells
answer

C) fibroblasts, macrophages, and mast cells
question

The dermis has two major layers; which of the following constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin? A) the reticular layer B) the subcutaneous layer C) the hypodermal layer D) the papillary layer
answer

A) the reticular layer
question

Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn? A) The pain is acute due to the large number of Meissner’s corpuscles. B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis. C) The blood vessels in the dermis rupture and the blood passes through the tissue, causing “black-and-blue marks.” D) The stretching causes the tension lines to disappear.
answer

B) The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
question

The papillary layer of the dermis is connective tissue heavily invested with blood vessels. The superficial surface has structures called: A) dermal papillae. B) hair follicles. C) ceruminous glands. D) reticular papillae.
answer

A) dermal papillae.
question

The design of a person’s epidermal ridges is determined by the manner in which the papillae rest upon the dermal ridges to produce the specific pattern known as handprints, footprints, and fingerprints. Which of the following statements is true regarding these prints or ridges? A) Every human being has the same pattern of ridges. B) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person. C) Because we are constantly shedding epithelial cells, these ridges are changing daily. D) Identical twins do not have the same pattern of ridges.
answer

B) They are genetically determined, therefore unique to each person.
question

Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body’s natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage? A) The skin is protected by the synthesis of three pigments that contribute to the skin’s color. B) Carotene, which accumulates in the stratum corneum and hypodermal adipose tissue, is synthesized in large amounts in the presence of sunlight. C) The skin is protected by increasing the number of epidermal dendritic cells, which help to activate the immune system. D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
answer

D) Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
question

Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison’s disease? A) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance. B) Black-and-blue marks become evident for no apparent cause. C) The skin appears to have an abnormal, yellowish tint. D) It is impossible to suggest Addison’s disease from an inspection of a person’s skin.
answer

A) The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
question

An epidermal dendritic cell is a specialized ________. A) squamous epithelial cell B) phagocytic cell C) nerve cell D) melanocyte
answer

B) phagocytic cell
question

What are the most important factors influencing hair growth? A) sex and hormones B) age and glandular products C) the size and number of hair follicles D) nutrition and hormones
answer

D) nutrition and hormones
question

Which of the following statements best describes what fingernails actually are? A) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis. B) Fingernails are derived from osseous tissue. C) Fingernails are extensions of the carpal bones. D) Fingernails are a separate tissue from the skin, formed from a different embryonic layer.
answer

A) Fingernails are a modification of the epidermis.
question

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands? A) sebaceous and merocrine B) mammary and ceruminous C) eccrine and apocrine D) holocrine and mammary
answer

C) eccrine and apocrine
question

The sebaceous glands are simple alveolar glands that secrete a substance known as sebum. The secretion of sebum is stimulated ________. A) by high temperatures B) when the air temperature drops C) by hormones, especially androgens D) as a protective coating when one is swimming
answer

C) by hormones, especially androgens
question

In addition to protection (physical and chemical barrier), the skin serves other functions. Which of the following is another vital function of the skin? A) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism. B) It aids in the transport of materials throughout the body. C) The cells of the epidermis store glucose as glycogen for energy. D) It absorbs vitamin C so that the skin will not be subject to diseases.
answer

A) It converts modified epidermal cholesterol to a vitamin D precursor important to calcium metabolism.
question

Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________. A) they grow much slower B) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months C) the vascular supply of the eyebrow follicle is one-tenth that of the head hair follicle D) hormones in the eyebrow follicle switch the growth off after it has reached a predetermined length
answer

B) eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member