chapter 5 review

The passing on of traits from parent to offspring
Heredity
The study of heredity
Genetics
Different forms of a trait that a gene may have
Alleles
Describes a trait that covers over another from of that trait
Dominant
Describes a trait that is covered over by another from or that trait and seems to disappear
Recessive
A tool used to predict the probability of certain traits in offspring. It also shows the different ways alleles can combine.
Punnett Square
An offspring that was given different genetic information information for a trait from each parent
Hybrid
The genetic makeup of an organism
Genotype
Outward physical appearance and behavior of an organism as a result of its genotype
Phenotype
Describes an organism with two alleles that are the same for a trait
Homozygous
Describes an organism with two different alleles for a trait
Heterozygous
Production of a phenotype that is intermediate between the two

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homozygous parents
Incomplete dominance
Occurs when a group of gene pairs acts together and produces a specific trait, such as human eye color, skin color, or height
Polygenic inheritance
An allele inherited on a sex chromosome and that can cause human genetic disorders such as color blindness and hemophilia
Sex-linked gene
Biological and chemical methods to change the arrangement of a gene’s DNA to improve crop production, produce large volumes of medicine, and change how cells perform their normal functions
Genetic engineering
The outward appearance of a trait is a(n) _________.
Phenotype
Human height, eye color, and skin color are all traits controlled by _______.
Polygenic inheritance
________is the science that deals with the study of heredity.
Genetics
The actual combination of alleles of an organism is its ______.
Genotype
_____is moving fragments of DNA from one organism and inserting them into another organism.
Genetic engineering
A(n) ______is a helpful device for predicting the probabilities of possible genotypes.
Punnett Square
______is the passing of traits from parent to offspring.
Heredity
Red-green color blindness is a human genetic disorder caused by a(n) _________.
Sex-linked gene
Which describes the allele that causes color blindness?
a. Dominant
b. Carried on the Y chromosome
c. Carried on the X chromosome
d. Present only in males
c. Carried on the X chromosome
__________ studies how traits are inherited though the interactions of alleles.
a. Genetics
b. Mitosis
c. Probability
d. Regeneration
a. Genetics
Which process separates chromosomes?
a. Meiosis
b. Pedigree
c. Inheritance
d. Chemosynthesis
a. Meiosis
Which topic in mathematics did Mendel use to help explain heredity?
a. Algebra
b. Calculus
c. Probability
d. Geometry
c. Probability
Which of these is an organism that produces the same traits in every generation?
a. A purebred
b. A hybrid
c. a pea plant
d. A chromosome
a. A purebred
__________ is the process Mendel used to pollinate flowers of short plants with pollen from tall plants.
a. Polygenic inheritance
b. Genetics
c. Cross-pollination
d. Mitosis
c. Cross-pollination
Which is a tool that is used to predict genetic crosses?
a. A slide rule
b. A tally sheet
c. A Venn diagram
d. A Punnett square
d. A Punnett square
Mendel’s pea plants were __________ for the tall-dominant trait.
a. Heterozygous
b. Pedigrees
c. Homozygous
d. Variable
c. Homozygous
Which of these describes how an organism looks?
a. Its probability
b. Its phenotype
c. Its hybrid
d. Its zygosity
b. Its phenotype
Where are the alleles for each parent written when using a Punnett square?
a. Across the top and along the side of the grid
b. In the top two squares of the grid
c. In the bottom two squares of the grid
d. Only at the bottom of the grid
a. Across the top and along the side of the grid
_________ is the production of a phenotype that is between two homozygous parents.
a. A sex-linked gene
b. A hybrid
c. Genetic engineering
d. Incomplete dominance
d. Incomplete dominance
A person with phenotype O blood has how many possible genotypes?
a. 6
b. 1
c. 3
d. 2
b. 1
Blood types in humans are an example of traits controlled by __________.
a. Multiple alleles
b. Offspring
c. Only homozygous parents
d. Pedigree
a. Multiple alleles
A person with phenotype A blood has how many possible genotypes?
a) 2
b) 1
c) 6
d) 3
a. 2
What influences whether the gene for brightly colored feathers is expressed in a bird?
a) External influences
b) Incomplete dominance
c) Chromosome disorders
d) Internal influences
d. Internal influences
Which of these is a trait that is produced by a combination of multiple genes?
a) Incomplete dominance
b) Recessive alleles
c) Polygenic inheritance
d) DNA
c. Polygenic inheritance
Which is true of mutations in DNA?
a) All mutations are beneficial to an organism.
b) A mutation might have no effect on an organism.
c) All mutations are harmful to an organism.
d) Mutations have no effect on an organism.
b. A mutation might have no effect on an organism.
Which pair of chromosomes produces a female offspring?
a. A female Y chromosome and a male Y chromosome.
b. A female Y chromosome and a male X chromosome.
c. A female X chromosome and a male X chromosome.
d. A female X chromosome and a male Y chromosome.
c. A female X chromosome and a male X chromosome.
Which of these is usually the cause of human genetic disorders?
a. Mucus
b. Genetic engineering
c. Recessive genes
d. Incomplete dominance
c. Recessive genes
Which pair of chromosome produces a male offspring?
a. A female Y chromosome and a male Y chromosome.
b. A female X chromosome and a male X chromosome.
c. A female X chromosome and a male Y chromosome.
d. A female Y chromosome and a male X chromosome.
c. A female X chromosome and a male Y chromosome.
Which of these is the result of an extra chromosome?
a. Down’s syndrome
b. Color blindness
c. Smallpox
d. Influenza
a. Down’s syndrome
Which of these describe the allele that causes color blindness?
a. Dominant
b. Carried on the X chromosome
c. Carried on the Y chromosome
d. Present only in males
b. carried on the X chromosome
__________ is one type of genetic engineering, where a normal allele is placed into a virus.
a. A color blind test
b. Down’s syndrome
c. Gene therapy
d. Polygenic inheritance
c. Gene therapy
Which of these is used to improve the phenotype of plants?
a. Recombinant DNA
b. Mitosis
c. Chromosome disorders
d. Selective breeding
d. Selective breeding
Human insulin can be produced by introducing DNA from one organism into a _______.
a. Virus
b. Plant
c. Vaccine
d. Bacterium
d. Bacterium
_______ is one method of genetic engineering in which a useful segment of DNA from one organism is inserted into a bacterium.
a. Gene therapy
b. Recombinant DNA
c. Selective breeding
d. Cloning
b. Recombinant DNA
Which is a genetic disorder that gene therapy may correct?
a. Type I diabetes
b. Tetnus
c. AIDS
d. Cystic fibrosis
d. Cystic fibrosis
A pure bred red-flowering plant and a pure bred white-flowering plant cross. The offspring produce pink flowers. What pattern of inheritance is this?
a. Complete dominance
b. Polygenic inheritance
c. Incomplete dominance
d. Multiple alleles
c. Incomplete dominance
Blood type in humans is an example of
a. Polygenic inheritance.
b. Incomplete dominance.
c. Sex-linked inheritance.
d. Multiple alleles.
d. Multiple alleles
An allele carried on a Y chromosome will affect
a. All of the female offspring.
b. Some of the male and female offspring.
c. All of the male offspring.
d. None of the offspring.
c. All of the male offspring
What must be true of a person with cystic fibrosis?
a. At least one parent was a carrier for cystic fibrosis.
b. The mother was a carrier for cystic fibrosis.
c. One of the parents had the condition cystic fibrosis.
d. Both parents had at least one allele for cystic fibrosis.
d. Both parents had at least one allele for cystic fibrosis
Treating genetic disorders by inserting normal alleles into cells is called
a. Medelian genetics.
b. Gene therapy.
c. Polygenic inheritance.
d. Pedigree analysis.
b. Gene therapy
Recombinant DNA is made by
a. Exposing DNA to X rays or radioactive substances.
b Causing random mutations to occur during the copying of DNA.
c. Inserting a segment of DNA from one organism into a chromosome of another organism.
d. Crossing two organisms that are homozygous for a specific trait.
c. Inserting a segment of DNA from one organism into a chromosome of another organism.
A chromosome disorder occurs when
a. One nitrogen base has been substituted for another.
b. A new organism receives more or fewer chromosomes than normal.
c. Meiosis fails to occur.
d. DNA is not copied correctly during mitosis.
b. A new organism receives more or fewer chromosomes than normal.
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