Chapter 40 & 52

Flashcard maker : Clarence Louder
Albuminuria
The abnormal presence of albumin in the urine.
Azotemia
Retention in the blood of excessive amounts of nitrogenous wastes.
Copulation
Sexual intercourse.
Erythropoietin
A substance released from the kidneys and liver that promotes red blood formation.
Urgency
A sudden, compelling desire to urinate and the inability to control the release of urine.
Urology
The study of the urinary tract in both male and female patients.
Urethritis
Inflammation of the urethra
Cystitis
Infection of the urinary bladder
Pyelonephritis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney
Glomerulonephritis
Degenerative inflammation of the glomeruli
Creatinine
Nitrogenous wastes from muscle metabolism that is excreted in the urine.
Blood Urea Nitrogen
A blood test to detect renal disease.
Urinalysis
A common laboratory examination used to diagnose and evaluate diseases in multiple body systems.
Epididymis
A long, coiled tube that rests on the top and lateral side of each testis.
Renal calculi
Kidney stones
BPH
A condition in which the signs and symptoms include urinary urgency and frequency, difficulty: starting urination, hematuria, and repeated UTIs.
Crytorchidism
Undescended testicles
Prostatitis
Inflammation of the prostate
Balantitis
Inflammation of the glans penis
Impotence
A form of erectile dysfunction
Hydrocele
A sac of clear fluid in the scrotum
Filtration
Passage of fluid and waste materials from the glomerulus to the Bowman’s capusle.
Reabsorption
Absorption of fluid and other substances from the renal tubules
Excretion
_____ of waste material in the form of urine.
Filtration, reabsorption, excretion
List the three processes of urine formation.
Urinary
Maintain water-electrolyte balance, activate vitamin D, secrete erythropoientin for RBC production, and regulated blood pressure through renin are the primary functions of which system?
20
Urethra is _____ cm in males.
3 to 4
Urethra is __ to __ cm in females.
Meatus
Urine passes through the urinary _____ .
Nephron unit
Filtration and reabsorption occurs in the ____ ___.
Stress Incontinence
Temporary or chronic loss of urinary control caused by straining or coughing in postsurgical patients and in patients with weak pelvic musculature.
Urinary incontinence
A temporary or chronic loss of urinary control causes vary by infections, brain disorders, tissue damage.
Chronic glomerulus
Causes progressive, irreversible renal damage; may result in renal failure; caused by antigen antibody reaction that destroys the nephron unit.
ESWL
Uses vibrations of powerful sound waves to break stones into fragmented pieces that can be passed. High energy sound waves are passed through the body toward the exact location of the calculi.
Hydronephrosis
Swelling of kidney caused by inability of urine to drain out of renal pelvis caused by blockage from renal calculi, enlarged prostate, or a tumor.
Polycystic Disease
Autosomal dominant genetic disorder.Slowly progressive and irreversible which eventually will require renal dialysis or kidney transplant.
Bladder Cancer
Most common cancer of the urinary tract two to three times more common in men. tumors are invasive and can metastasize through the blood or surrounding pelvic lymph nodes.
Wilms Tumor
Cancer of kidney in children, occurs unilaterally at about 2 to 5 years of age. 90% survival rate.
Acute Renal Failure
Sudden, severe onset. Causes are exposure to toxic chemicals, circulatory collapse from serious burns or heart disease; acute bilateral kidney infection or inflammation. Primary problem must be resolved as quickly as possible to prevent permanent renal failure.
Chronic Renal Failure
Slowly progressive process and causes are diabetes.
Enuresis
Inability to control urination or bed wetting; may be caused by physical or psychological disorders.
Urine Reflux Disorder
Backward flow of urine into the ureters when voiding; usually caused by an infection.
Benign Prostatic hypertrophy
Swelling of the prostate gland; partially blocks flow of urine, creating medium for bacterial infection.
Prostate-Specific Antigen
PSA level between 4 and 10 indicates 25% chance of prostate cancer, higher than 10 increases chance to 50%.
Chlamydia
Most frequently reported infectious disease in the United States; diagnosed with urine test; complications among men are rare.
Gonorrhea
Second most commonly reported infectious disease; CDC estimates twice as many new infectious occur each year, untreated infections can cause epididymis and possible infertility.
Syphillis
Highly infectious in early stages but easily curable; untreated it can lead to serious long-term complications, including nerve, cardiovascular, organ damage, and death.
Viral
There is no cure for ____ STDs such as HIV or herpes.
Genital Herpes
Transmission can occur from an infected partner who does not have a visible sore, condoms do not completely prevent transmission.
HPV
May be unaware of the infection but can transmit it to sex partner; genital warts may disappear without treatment.
Myoglobinuria
Abnormal presence of a hemoglobin-like chemical of muscle tissue in urine as the result of muscle deterioration
Ischemia
Decreased blood flow to a body part or organ caused by constriction or plugging of the supplying artery.
PMN
White blood cells, leukocytes that have segmented nuclei.
Glycosuria
Presence of glucose in the urine
Renal threshold
level above which a substance cannot be reabsorbed by the renal tubules and therefore is excreted in the urine.
Filtrate
Fluid that remains after a liquid is passed through a membranous filter.
Urinaometer
A sealed glass float with a calibrated paper scale in its stem. With a slight spinning motion, it is placed into a cylinder containing a urine sample, and the valve is read at the meniscus of the urine.
Dipsticks
Strips used to test the specific gravity of urine.
Refractometer
Device that measures the refraction of light through solids in a liquid.
Clnitest
Glucose test on a reagent strip. A tablet is dropped into a test tube of urine, and the color of the tube’s contents is compared with a chart.
Acetest
Reagent tablets used to test for the presence of fat metabolism byproducts.
HCG
Substance detected by all pregnancy tests.
Amorphous
Shape of urates or phosphates that settle out of unrefrigerated urine samples.
Bilirubinuria
Medical term for a urine sample with a persistent greenish-yellow foam that may indicate the patient viral hepatitis.
Culture and Sensitivity
Procedure performed in the microbiology laboratory in which a specimen in cultured on artificial media to detect bacterial or fungal growth, followed by appropriate screening for antibiotic sensitivity.
Casts
Protein that has taken on the size and shape of the renal tubules that is washed into the urine.
Random, two-hour, twenty-four hour, second-voided, clean-catch, catheterized
List the six different methods of collecting a urine specimen.
Appearance, volume, foam, odor, specific gravity
List the five components of the physical examination of urine.
Glucose, protein, ketones, blood, urobilinogen, bilirubin, nitrite, leukocytes.
List the eight chemical components of urine.
Dysuria
Painful or difficult urination.
Urgency
The need to urinate
Retention
Holding urine in the bladder
Incontinence
The inability to control urine output, and may be caused by infection of the Urinary Tract, brain disorders, and Tissue Damage.
Polyuria
Too much urination
Oliguria
Scanty production of urine
1 to 2 liters
What is the normal volume of urine produced each day?
Pyuria
Pus in the urine
Cranberry
What kind of juice is an excellent fluid to flush out the urinary system?
Cystoscopy
A procedure to visualize the bladder and look for stones.
Hemodialysis
Done in the hospital or in a center, usually 3 times a week for those patients who have kidney failure.
CAPD
Usually done at home every day for proper treatment.Patient may be put on the kidney transplant list.
Proteinuria
One of the first signs of Renal disease is
urine
_____ is examined for two reasons: 1) to detect extrinsic conditions, those in which the kidney is functioning normally, 2) to detect intrinsic pathologic conditions that involve the kidney’s or urinary tract.
Container
Urine is collected into a _____ , designed to hold liquid for the specific test requested.
Random Specimen
A freshly collected specimen in a clean container
Mid-Stream Specimen
A sample collected as part of the mid stream voiding, the flow is initiated into the toilet, then stopped, a container is now placed in projected stream, urine flow is re-initiated and sample is collected, flow is then stopped, the container is removed, and finally flow is completed into toilet.
First Morning Specimen
Collected when patient first rises in the morning, this specimen is best for protein determinations, bacterial cultures, pregnancy testing and microscopic examinations.
Two-hour postprandial specimen
Collected 2 hours after eating; used to screen for diabetes.
24 hour urine specimen
All urine produced for 24 hours is collected and saved for quantitative chemical analysis, such as hormone levels or creatinine clearance.
Second voided specimen
After discarding the first morning specimen, collect the next sample produced as a second voided specimen.
Catheterized specimen
Urine collected from the bladder after a tube has been inserted through the urethra into the bladder.
Suprapubic specimen
Use of a syringe and needle to collect urine produced and contained in the bladder.
Clean Catch
The process of cleaning the urethra meatus thoroughly prior to collection, normally used for bacterial cultures, also called a CCMS or clean catch midstream specimen.
Physical, chemical, microscopic examinations
The Routine Urinalysis consists of three basic tests done on that sample:
Appearance
Color is dependent upon the concentration of a pigment, Urochrome and the amount of water in the specimen. Variations of color may be due to diet, medication, and disease. Ex: pale straw, yellow, dark yellow, amber, reddish, red.
Turbidity
Cloudiness or clarity of the sample. This may range from clear, slightly hazy, hazy, turbid, cloudy, to moderately cloudy. Cloudiness may be caused by cells, bacteria, yeast, vaginal contaminants or crystals.
Specific Gravity
The weight of total solids dissolved in the urine sample can be measured using a total solids meter or TS Meter. It represents a rough measurement of the concentration or amount of substances dissolved in the urine.
1.010 1.025
Most urine samples have a specific gravity between ___ and ____.
Volume
Normally not recorded, a routine volume of between 20 to 50 mL is the recommended sample volume. Measuring the volume of urine is normally done with a 24 hour specimen and is used in the calculations of the analyte tested.
Foam
Normally not recorded, but can be significant clue to an abnormality, presence of increased protein in the specimen or greenish-yellowish foam can mean bilirubinuria
Odor
Normally not recorded, but can be an important clue to metabolic disorders. Normal urine is said to aromatic and changes of this odor can be due to changes in diet or bacterial infection.
Dip-stix
The chemical examination of the urine are normally done with a reagent test strip or a ____-___.
pH
The measurement of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the urine. A pH of 7.0 is neutral, less than 7 represents acidity, while results greater than 7 represents alkalinity.
6-8
What is the normal urine pH level range?
Glucose
Normally not found in urine, but if present, is called glycosuria and is common in patient with diabetes.
Protein
May be detectable as proteinuria in athletes and may be normal in slight amounts in normal people.
Ketones
The end product of fat metabolism in the body and is common in starvation diets, low-carbohydrate diets, vomiting, and diabetes.
Blood
May indicate infection of trauma to the urinary tract or bleeding in the kidneys and is called hematuria.
Bilirubin
Also known as urobilinogen: are the products of RBC destruction and are increased in liver disease and may color the urine from yellowish-brown to greenish-orange.
Nitrite
Seen when bacteria in the urine break down nitrates, a common component in normal urine. Presence of nitrites indicate the presence of bacterial infection or UTI.
Leukocyte Esterase
Indicates the presence of leukocytes or WBCs and only detects the neutrophiles that are present during a bacterial infection or UTI. Not seen in viral infections, where the agranular leukocytes will be increased.
RBC
Entering at any point where there is inflammation or injury.
WBC
Occasional cells are not abnormal, but increased numbers indicate bacterial infection.
False
T/F. Hemodialysis is done once a week to maintain health.
False
T/F. Patients receiving peritoneal dialysis must report to the hospital or dialysis center for procedure.
False
T/F. The presents of cast in urine sediment always indicates a pathological condition.
False
T/F. The Ace test is performed to detect abnormal pH in urine.
Both
T/F. The CLITA test is performed as a screening test for glycosuria.
False
T/F. The EIA test results for pregnancy is positive if anti-HCG is present in the urine.
False
T/F. The urinometer is the most frequently used in determining the specific gravity of a specimen.
Ureters
What part of the urinary system is responsible for transporting urine from the kidneys to the bladder?
Oliguria
Which of the following words refers to scanty amounts of urine production?
All of the above
Which of the following refers to the passage of urine from the body: Micturition, Urination, Voiding, All of the above.
All of the above or Pregnancy
A medical assistant directs a patient to collect a morning specimen for which of the following test: Pregnancy, Culture for bacteria, Quantitative protein determination, All of the above?
Bilirubin
Urine with high suspected levels of which substance should be stored in the dark before testing?
Refrigerate it
If a urine specimen cannot be analyzed in thirty minutes, the best course of action is to ?
Precipitated Amorphous Urine Crystals
You return from a lunch break and find that several urine’s are waiting in the refrigerator to be tested, one of the specimens has a thick layer of pinkish-fluffy colored sediment on the bottom, what might this sediment be: Blood cells, epithelial cells, lipids, precipitated amorphous urine crystals.
Reddish brown diabetes
Which of the following is mismatched concerning urine color and the likely pathological cause: Red-bleeding in the urinary tract, Greenish yellow-liver disorder, Blue green-sudamorus infection, Reddish brown-diabetes?
pH
You fail to refrigerate a urine sample for an extended period of time for testing which of the following is likely to increase: ketones, glucose, bilirubin, pH.
5-8
What is the normal pH range for urine?
3
When obstructing a female patient for a Clean Catch Midstream Urine sample, how many antiseptic towelettes does she need?
2 Liters
The normal volume of urine produced in an adult in a 24 hour period usually does not exceed?
PSA
Prostate cancer tends to be detected by?
E.Coli
Which of the following is not sexually transmitted: HIV, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, E. Coli?
E.Coli
Which is the most common cause of UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) ?
Kidney Ureter Bladder
KUB is an x-ray study of the ?
Polyuria
Which of the following words refers to large amounts of urine production?
All of the above
Which of the following items should be included on a urine specimen label: Date of collection, Time of collection, patient’s name, all of the above.
Midstream clean catch specimen
Which of the following is a non-sterile procedure usually performed before a urine culture and sensitivity test: catherization of the bladder, Collection of a midstream clean catch specimen, collection of a random specimen, super pubic aspiration, collection of 24 hour specimen?
Implantation to delivery
Urine pregnancy test is positive only before: implantation of the fertilized egg, fertilization through first trimester, implantation of fertilization egg through the first trimester, implantation of the fertilized egg through delivery?
10x objective decreased illumination
Cast in the urine sediment are best observed with: 10x objective decreased illumination, 100x objective increased illumination, 10x objective increased illumination, 100x objective decreased illumination?
RBC
In the microscopic observation of urine sediment, yeast most resembles?
Squamous Epithelial Cells
The cell most likely seen in a normal specimen: RBC, Renal Tubular Epithelial Cells, Squamous Epithelial Cells, Leukocytes?
Normal
A urine specimen is tested and shown that its pH is 8, this value is: abnormally low, abnormally high, mid range normal, normal?
Urobiliogen
Which of the following is always present in small quantity of normal urine: Bilirubin, glucose, Urobiliogen, Leukocytes estrates.
Urochrome
The pigment _____ is responsible for the color of urine?
Proteinuria
One of the first detectable signs of renal disease is?
increased pH increased nitrites increased leukocytes estrates
On a chemical analysis of a urine specimen from a female with a urinary tract infection most likely reveals: decreased pH-increased nitrites-increased leukocytes estrates, increase pH-decreased nitrites-decreased leukocytes estrates, increased pH-decreased nitrites-increased leukocytes estrates?
Abnormally high
A specific gravity of a urine sample reads 1.035, this valued is considered to be: abnormally high, abnormally low, normal, none of the above?
1.010-1.025
What is the normal specific gravity of a urine sample?
Ketones
You open a urine sample for testing in immediately detecting fruity odor, which test would you expect be elevated on a chemical analysis: protein, urobiliogen, ketones, bilirubin?
Diabetes Mellitus
Physical assessment of urine reveals a pale straw colored urine with a sweet odor what pathologic condition might this suggest: diabetes mellitus, UTI, kidney disease, dehydration?
Erythropoietin
What promotes the production of RBCs?
Uremia, Chronic glomerular arthritis
What is marked by hypertension and anuria?
Opportunistic infection
What occurs in patients with AIDS because of decreased cell mediated immunity?
Hyline
What cast are not uncommon in the area of athletes?
Menstruating
A random sample may contain blood from a vaginal examination if the women is?
Toxicology
______ is the study of poisonous substances and their affects on the body?

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