Chapter 4

Question Answer
The hardest of all substances diamond
The rarest gemstone ruby
Scientists who study minerals mineralogists
The brown or black rocklike substance used for fuel coal
Oil in its natural state is called crude oil or petroleum
The preserved remains of plants or animals are called fossils
Person who explores caves spelunker
Used in plaster of Paris gypsum
Easily broken into flat sheets mica
"Mud Ball" filled with crystals inside geode
Used in pencils graphite
Used for arrow heads flint
Best conductor of electricity silver
Most useful metal iron
Metal that is liquid at room temperature mercury
Radioactive metal used as a source of nuclear power uranium
Lightweight, silvery colored, rustproof metal aluminum
Two types of weathering chemical and physical
Three types of rocks igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
Examples of igneous rocks obsidian, pumice, granite, basalt
Examples of sedimentary rocks limestone, shale, sandstone
Examples of metamorphic rocks marble, slate
Scientist who studies the earth geologist
Name the four layers of the earth crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
Is the crust solid, liquid, or both? solid
Is the mantle solid, liquid, or both? both
Is the outer core solid, liquid, or both? liquid
Is the inner core solid, liquid, or both? solid
Molten rock in the earth's mantle magma
Decaying plant and animal material found in the soil humus
Very durable artificial rock concrete
This rock smells like mud when it is wet shale
Rock used to make chalkboards slate
All minerals form a special kind of solid called a crystal
Rare, beautiful minerals that are very hard but have not yet been polished gemstones
Underground spring that shoots streams of boiling water and steam up into the air from time to time geyser
Plant and animal remains that have turned to stone are called petrified fossils
Fossils that form when mud buries a plant or animal and them quickly hardens around it mold fossils
Scientist who studies fossils paleontologist
Most fossils were probably formed During Noah's Flood

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