Chapter 4 Workforce Focus

everyone who is actively involved in accomplishing the work of an organization (paid employees, volunteers and contract employees, team leaders, supervisors and managers at all levels
Definition of workforce management
HRM, facilitates the use of people (employees) to achieve organisational and individual goals
Evolution of workforce management
Taylor system and scientific management
Taylor system and scientific management
factory managed on scientific basis, improved productivity, manufacturing works became mundane and mindless tasks, adversarial relationship between management and labour, failed to exploit execution from planning
Workforce management activities
determining the organization’s workforce needs, assisting in the design of work systems, recruiting, selecting, training and developing, counseling, motivating, and rewarding employees, acting as a liaison with unions and government organisations and handling matters of employees well-being
Strategic human resource management
contributions HR strategies make to organisational effectiveness and how these contributions are accomplished.

It involves designing and implementing policies and practices to ensure that an organization’s human capital (employees’ knowledge, skills, and abilities) contributes to overall business objectives

Key workforce-focused practices for performance excellence 1
Promote teamwork and skill sharing across work units, empower individuals and teams to make decisions that affect quality and customer satisfaction, make appropriate investments in hiring, development and learning
Key workforce-focused practices for performance excellence 2
Maintain a work environments conducive to the well being and growth of employees
Develop a performance management system based on compensation, recognition, reward, and incentives that supports high performance work and workforce engagement and satisfaction.
Manage career progression for the entire workforce and succession planning for management and leadership positions
High performance work culture
work approaches used to systematically pursue ever-higher levels of overall organizational and human performance
Characteristics of high performance work culture
Commitment to achieving objectives and accountability.
– Performance targets are delineated for the whole and different levels of organization.
– Result-oriented behaviours and passion to make organization successful.
– Value high performers and keep them
Workforce engagement
workforce commitment, both emotional and intellectual, to accomplishing the work, mission, and vision of the organization
Engaged workers
find personal meaning and motivation in their work,
have a strong emotional bond to their organization, are actively involved in and committed to their work,
feel that their jobs are important, know that their opinions and ideas have value, and
often go beyond their immediate job responsibilities for the good of the organization.
Advantages of workforce engagement
Replaces the adversarial mentality with trust and cooperation
Increases employee morale and commitment to the organization
Fosters creativity and innovation, the source of competitive advantage
Helps people understand quality principles and instills these principles into the corporate culture
Allows employees to solve problems at the source immediately
Improves quality and productivity
Designing high performance work system
Recruitment and
Work Environment
Workforce Learning and Development
Compensation and Recognition
Performance Management
Recruitment and selection
Meeting and exceeding customer expectations begins by hiring the right people whose skills and attitudes will support and enhance the organizational objectives.
Traditional approach focus on cognitive and technical abilities.
New one Enthusiasm; resourceful, customer driven and compassionate; critical thinking; creativity and flexibility to nlearn new skills rapidly.
Different tests and role play
Giving people authority to make decisions based on what they feel is right, to have control over their work, to take risks and learn from mistakes, and to promote change.
the objectives of tapping the creative energies of all employees and improving their motivation
Successful empowerment
Provide education, resources, and encouragement
Remove restrictive policies/procedures
Foster an atmosphere of trust
Share information freely
Make work valuable
Train managers in “hands-off” leadership
Train employees in allowed latitude
Empowerment benefits
Boost employees confidence
Generate commitment and pride
Give experience and opportunities
Customer satisfaction
Unleashing talent
a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, set of performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable
Types of team
Natural work teams
Management teams
Self managed teams
Quality circles
Problem solving teams
Project teams (adhoc)
Building effective teams
Clarity in team goals
Improvement plan
Clearly defined roles
Clear communication
Well-defined decision procedures
Balanced participation
Established ground rules
Awareness of group process
Use of scientific approach
Workplace environment
Key factors:
Overall well-being
Second home;
Disabilities facilities, harassment policies counseling, hang out place, gym, daycare, extraordinary leave, flexible hours; retiree services. and many more
Workforce learning and development
Research indicates that companies that spend heavily on training their workers outperform companies that spend considerably less, as measured on the basis of overall stock market returns.
Customer/stakeholders needs and strategic direction should drive training strategies. Focus on how employee can contribute.
Workforce learning and development implementation
On the job training; Training classroom; distance computer based learning; development assignment (learning as working); self -past learning (manuals); mentoring and protégé; outside consultant (knowledge transfer)
On the coaching; Test; measure behaviours and attitudes change
The best measure of training is result
Workforce learning and development benefits
Quality awareness; Quality techniques; leadership; project management; communication; teamwork; problem solving; research methods and design/analysis; process improvement; waste reduction; cycle time reduction; HR related areas.
Using rewards and incentives
to promote better strategy execution, Monetary rewards are paramount.
Non-monetary rewards
Provide attractive perks
Give awards or public recognitions
Promote internally
Encourage employee involvement
Create a positive work environment
Devise strategic vision and planning that engage employees
– Maintain attractive office space and facilities
Effective incentive compensation
Linking rewards to strategically relevant performance results not efforts.
Make financial incentives as the main piece of total compensation
All levels of management share the incentives
Administer the reward system with fairness
Performance targets/results related to the jobs
Shorter time between achievement and rewards
Communicate the incentive plan to employees
Performance management and measurement system
Performance measurement v/s performance management
How you are measured is how you perform!
Conventional performance appraisal systems
Focus on short-term results and individual behavior
Foster discourage risk taking; short term results; discouraging long term planning, and behaviours difficult to measure; individualistic; biasness, and etc.
New approaches
Focus on company goals such as quality and behaviors like teamwork
360-degree feedback
Premier performance measurement system
establish expectation, manage performance, measure and reward performance and improve performance
Assessing workforce effectiveness, satisfaction, and engagement
Outcome and process measures
Outcome measures
number of teams, rate of growth, percentage of employees involved, number of suggestions implemented, time taken to respond to suggestions, employee turnover, absenteeism, and grievances; perceptions of teamwork and management effectiveness, engagement, satisfaction, and empowerment.
Process measures
number of suggestions that employees make, numbers of participants in project teams, participation in educational programs, average time it takes to complete a process improvement project, whether teams are getting better, smarter, and faster at performing improvements, improvements in team selection and planning processes, frequency of use of quality improvement tools, employee understanding of problem-solving approaches, and senior management involvement
Gallup engagement index classification
1. Engaged employees who work with passion and feel a profound connection to their company. They drive innovation and move the organization forward.
2. Not-engaged employees who are essentially “checked out.” They are sleepwalking through their workday. They are putting in time, but not enough energy or passion into their work.
3. Actively disengaged employees who aren’t just unhappy at work; they’re busy acting out their unhappiness. Every day, these workers undermine what their engaged coworkers accomplish.
Succession planning
Formal processes to identify, develop, and position future leaders
Mentoring, coaching, and job rotation
Career paths and progression for all employees
Succession planning is vital to long-term sustainability

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