Chapter 4 Psyc

question

What are genes?
answer

question

how do behavior genetics explain our individual differences?
answer

question

behavior geneticists
answer

question

environment
answer

every nongenetic influ- ence, from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us.
question

chromosome
answer

threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes.
question

What’s DNA?
answer

deoxyribonucleic acid
question

DNA
answer

(deoxyribonucleic acid) a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
question

Genes
answer

small segments of the giant DNA molecules the biochemical units of hered- ity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesiz- ing a protein.
question

protein molecules
answer

question

expressed genes
answer

question

inactive genes
answer

question

active genes
answer

question

chromosome
answer

question

cell
answer

question

nucleus
answer

question

• Put the following cell structures in order from smallest to largest: nucleus, gene, chromosome
answer

gene, chromosome, nucleus
question

When the mother’s egg and the father’s sperm unite, each contributes 23_____
answer

chromosomes
question

genome
answer

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism’s chromosomes.
question

chimp is ___
answer

96% the same as humans
question

Geneticists
answer

question

Complex traits
answer

intelligence, happiness, and aggres- siveness
question

behavior genetics
answer

the study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
question

Identical twins
answer

twins who develop from a single (monozygotic) fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms
question

Fraternal twins
answer

twins who develop from separate (dizygotic) fertilized eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
question

genetic relatives
answer

biological parents and siblings
question

environmental relatives
answer

adoptive parents and siblings
question

How do researchers use twin and adoption studies to learn about psychological principles?
answer

Researchers compare the traits and behaviors of identical twins (same genes) and fraternal twins (sharing half their genes—similar to any sibling). They also compare adopted children with their adoptive and biological parents. Some studies compare twins raised together or separately. These studies help us determine how much variation among individuals is due to genetic makeup and how much to environmental factors
question

temperament
answer

a person’s characteris- tic emotional reactivity and intensity.
question

Heredity
answer

question

What is the promise of molecular genetics research?
answer

question

molecular genetics
answer

question

molecular behavior genetics
answer

question

extraversion
answer

question

molecular genetics
answer

he subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
question

heritability
answer

the proportion of varia- tion among individuals that we can attribute to genes. The heritability of a trait may vary, depending on the range of populations and environments studied.
question

What is heritability?
answer

question

how does it relate to individuals and groups?
answer

question

Mark Twain
answer

question

Those studying the heritability of a trait try to determine how much of our individual variation in that trait is due to our ____
answer

genes
question

How do heredity and environment work together?
answer

Our genetic predispositions and our surrounding environments interact. Environments can trigger gene activity, and genetically influenced traits can evoke responses from others. The field of epigenetics studies the influences on gene expression that occur without changes in DNA.
question

self-regulating
answer

question

interact
answer

question

epigenetics
answer

the study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change
question

epigenetic mark
answer

question

Epigenetics
answer

Study of environmental factors that affect how our genes are expressed
question

Molecular genetics
answer

Study of the structure and function of specific genes.
question

Behavior genetics
answer

Study of the relative effects of our genes and our environment on our behavior.
question

How do evolutionary psychologists use natural selection to explain behavior tendencies?
answer

question

interaction
answer

the interplay that occurs when the effect of one factor (such as environment) depends on another factor (such as heredity)
question

epigenetics
answer

the study of influences on gene expression that occur without a DNA change.
question

evolutionary psychology
answer

the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection.
question

natural selection
answer

the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
question

Behavior geneticists
answer

question

Richard Dawkins
answer

question

Dmitry Belyaev
answer

question

mutations
answer

a random error in gene replication that leads to a change.
question

How are Belyaev and Trut’s breeding practices similar to, and how do they differ from, the way natural selection normally occurs?
answer

Over multiple generations, Belyaev and Trut have been selecting foxes that exhibit the desired trait of tameness and breeding them to produce tame foxes. This is similar to the process of natural selection, except these breeders were seeking tameness, and natural selection, which also includes mutation, normally favors traits that lead to reproductive success.
question

Would the heritability of aggressiveness be greater in Belyaev and Trut’s foxes, or in a wild population of foxes?
answer

Heritability of aggressiveness would be greater in the wild population, with its greater genetic variation in aggressiveness.
question

Steven Pinker
answer

question

second Darwinian revolution
answer

question

Jared Diamond
answer

question

On the Origin of Species,
answer

question

gender
answer

in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female.
question

Behavior geneticists are most interested in exploring (commonalities/differences) in our behaviors, and evolutionary psychologists are most interested in exploring (commonalities/differences).
answer

differences; commonalities
question

How might an evolutionary psychologist explain gender differences in sexuality and mating preferences?
answer

question

What are the key criticisms of evolutionary psychology?
answer

question

how do evolutionary psychologists respond?
answer

question

How do evolutionary psychologists explain gender differences in sexuality?
answer

Evolutionary psychologists theorize that women have inherited their ancestors’ tendencies to be more cautious, sexually, because of the challenges associated with incubating and nurturing offspring. Men have inherited an inclination to be more casual about sex, because their act of fathering requires a smaller investment.
question

What are the three main criticisms of the evolutionary explanation of human sexuality?
answer

(1) It starts with an effect and works backward to propose an explanation. (2) Unethical and immoral men could use such explanations to rationalize their behavior toward women. (3) This explanation may overlook the effects of cultural expectations and socialization.
question

How do early experiences modify the brain?
answer

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member