Chapter 4 chemistry study guide

Democritus
Reasoned that atoms were indivisible and indestructible.

Atom
The smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction.

Dalton
Transformed Democritus ideas on atoms into a scientific theory.

Dalton’s Atomic Theory 1.
All elements are composed of tiny indivisible particles

Dalton’s atomic theory 2.
Atoms of the same element are identical. The atoms of any one element are different from those of another.

Dalton’s atomic theory 3.
Atoms of different elements can physically mix together or can chemically combine in simple whole number ratios to form compounds

Dalton’s atomic theory 4.
Chemical reactions occur when elements are separated from each other, joined, or rearranged in a different combination.

Electrons
Negatively charged subatomic particles

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Cathode Ray
Experiment performed by Thomson. One electrode became positively charged, one became negative. The result was a glowing beam.

Robert A. Millikan
Carried out experiments to find the quantity of an electrons charge. Oil drop experiment.

Electron charge
One unit of negative charge

Electrons mass
1/1840

Electron charge
1-

Proton charge
1+

Neutron charge

Protons
Subatomic positively charged

Neutron
Subatomic negatively charged

Thomson discovery
The electrons

Thomson model
Plum pudding model

Rutherford
Good foil experiment

Nucleus
Tiny central core of an atom and is composed of protons and electrons

Nuclear atom
Has a positively charged nucleus. Electrons are distributed around the nucleus and occupy almost all the volume of the atom.

Elements are different
They all contain a different number of protons

Atomic number
The number of protons in that element.

Mass number
The total number of protons and neutrons

Isotopes
Atoms that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.

Isotopes difference
They have different mass numbers because they have a different number of neutrons.

Atomic mass unit (amu)
1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom

Atomic mass
Weighted average mass of the atoms naturally occurring sample of the element.

Calculating atomic mass
Mass of each isotope x natural abundance, and then add the products.

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