Chapter 4 and 10

Qualitative research is concerned with the _________ meaning of an experience to an individual and in-depth descriptions of people or events.
Concerned with the subjective meaning of an experience to an individual and in-depth descriptions of people or events

The goal of qualitiative research is to have a rich understanding of the __________; exploratory and descriptive in nature
Goal is to have a rich understanding of the phenomena; exploratory and descriptive in nature

When was qualitative research surged to the forefront of nursing?
during the 1990’s

What is the debate between qualitative research and EBP?
Debate as to whether findings should be part of the “evidence” in evidence-based practice

When conducting qualitative research is it necessary to verify results through the senses?
no

How can data be obtained when using the qualitative research method?
through unstructured interviews and participant observations

Does a qualitative researcher need to use existing theories to conduct their research?
no, they must be open to new ideas and new theories

Qualitative Research Step 1: Identify the problem

How long will the topic to be researched remain broad and general?

generally until the researcher enters the field setting

Qualitative Research Step 2: State the Purpose

What terms are usually used to state the purpose?

“To describe . . .”
“To explore . . .”
“To understand the experiences of . . .”

Qualitative Research Step 3: Select the Research Design

What does selecting the research design depend on?

the phenomenon that will be studied

Qualitative Research Step 4: Review the Literature

When is the literature review often conducted in qualitative research?

Often done at end of study

Qualitative Research Step 5: Select the Sample

There are no set rules for sample size, and there is an emphasis on quality over quantity. What are researchers striving for?

saturation

Qualitative Research Step 6: Gain Entry to Research Site

The research is conducted in the field or place where participants live or work. Where must permission be obtained from first?

IRB where she or he is employed

Qualitative Research Step 6: Gain Entry to Research Site

Who might the researcher look to for assistance with getting in touch with the participants and providing valuable insight into the phenomenon of interest?

key informants

Qualitative Research Step 7: Protect the Rights of Participants

There is a close relationship between researcher and participants; anonymity is generally not a consideration. How can confidentiality be ensured?

omitting certain demographic information such as age, educational level, and occupation of study participants

Qualitative Research Step 8: Collect the Data

What are the most common two ways of data collection in qualitative research?

semi-structured interviews or participant observation

Qualitative Research Step 8: Collect the Data

Name some examples of ways to collect the data

-interviews
– participant observation
-focus group
-open-ended questionaires
– diaries
– life histories
– official documents
-letters
-photographs

Qualitative Research Step 9: Analyze and Interpret the Data

This begins once data collection begins. What are searching for here? What are you examining?

searching for themes and patterns
examining quotes

Qualitative Research Step 9: Analyze and Interpret the Data

Content analysis involves creating categories of data and developing rules for coding data into categories. What are the two ways in which we can analyze the data?

manually or with the aid of qualitative data analysis software

In which mixed method of research might the qualitative method be used intially, until the hyptheses emerge? Then, the hypotheses might be tested using a quantitative method.
sequential version of mixed methods research

Mixed methods research involves the combination of quantitative and qualitative research in one study. What are the two ways this can be used?
sequential and simultaneous

Which way of combining qualitative and quantitative methods most often indicates the use of two or more different sampling strategies, data collectors, data collection procedures, or theories in one study?
Triangulation

Qualitative studies are considered valid if the findings “_____ ______” from the point of view of the subject. Both the large amount of data collected and the length of time spent collecting data help increase the _______ and ______ of qualitative research.
Qualitative studies are considered valid if the findings “reflect reality” from the point of view of the subject. Both the large amount of data collected and the length of time spent collecting data help increase the reliability and validity of qualitative research.

T or F

Qualitative researchers are concerned with the generalizability of their study findings.

False

T or F

The researchers exerts tight controls over the research situation in qualitative research.

F

T or F
The number of subjects is generally larger in qualitative research than in quantitative.
False

Which of the following is true when comparing quantitative to qualitative research?

A. Qualitative research is easier to conduct than quantitative study
B. The amount of data to be analyzed is usually greater in qualitative studies than in quantitative
C. Qualitative research most frequently uses a deductive approach, whereas quantitative research uses an inductive approach.

B. The amount of data to be analyzed is usually greater in qualitative studies than in quantitative

Name the design
-Explores/attempts to understand people’s everyday lives – their fundamental “lived” experiences
-Often used to examine understudied or marginalized populations and areas in which little is known
-Data are primarily collected through in-depth interviews
Important to minimize bias
Phenomenology

What is called when a researcher first identifies what he or she expects to discover and then deliberately puts aside these ideas?
bracketing

Name the design
-Grounded in anthropology (field work)
-Describes and interprets culture/cultural behavior
Ethnography

The ______ approach investigates how local people think” . How they perceive and categorize the world, their rules for behavior, what has meaning for them, and how they imagine and explain things. “The _____ (scientist-oriented) approach shifts the focus from local observations, categories, explanations, and interpretations to those of the anthropologist. The etic approach realizes that members of a culture often are too involved in what they are doing to interpret their cultures impartially. When using the etic approach, the ethnographer emphasizes what he or she considers important.
emic , etic

When ethnographers interview people who are most knowledgable about the culture, these people are called what?
key informants

In which design does the researcher frequently live with the people and become part of their culture?
ethnography

What is the end purpose of ethnography?
To develop cultural theories

Name a few ways in which ethnography data can be collected?
-Participant observation
-Interviews
-Autoethnography (if applicable)
-Other- drawings, writings, etc

Ethnography example – A researcher wants to understand child rearing practices among Jamaican parents. The researcher, who was originally from Jamaica, spends time with eight Jamaican families as a participant observer.

How will this researcher attempt to minimize bias in the study?

researchers will bracket, or make explicit, their own personal biases and beliefs, set them aside, and then try to understand the daily lives of the individuals as they live with them

Name the design.
-Rooted in sociology and social interactions
-Attempts to identify concerns/problems and basic social processes involved with how human beings solve or deal with problems
-Focused on generating hypotheses and theories rather than testing them
Grounded Theory

Name ways in which data can be collected and interpreted in grounded theory.
-Interviews and participant observation
-Diverse sample (“purposeful sampling”)
-Constant comparative method
-Identify concepts and specify relationships

In which design is constant comparison used? This is where data are constantly compared to data that have already been gathered.
Grounded Theory Studies

Does the grounded theory method use inductive or deductive approach to theory development?
both

What are studies in which data is collected, and analyzed, and then and then a theory is developed?
grounded theory studies

Despite the great diversity of data that are gathered, the grounded theory approach presume it is possible to discover fundamental patterns to all social life. What is this called?
basic social processes

Is grounded theory more concerned with the generation or testing of hypothesis?
generation

What example of action research involves a collaboration of the participants and researcher on all steps of the research process?
CBPR = Community-Based Participatory Research

Which design concerns the idenfication, location, evaluation, and syntesis of data from the past?
historical studies

Historical data should be subjected to both external and internal criticism.

Which is concerned with the authenticity of the data?
accuracy of data?

authenticity = external
accuracy = internal

In-depth examinations of people, groups of people, or institutions.
case studies

Guidelines for critiquing qualitative designs
p 141

Which of the of the following studies is considered qualitative?
A. correlational
B. ethnographic
C. comparative
D. methodological
B. ethnographic

Grounded theory research was developed by two
A. nurses
B. physicians
C. psychological
D. sociologist
D. sociologist

Margaret Mead was a researcher from what discipline?
A. Anthropology
B. Psychology
C. Nursing
A. Anthropology

Which of the following is true concerning the examination of historical research?
A. Internal criticism should be considered before external criticism.
B. External criticism should be considered before internal criticism.
C. Both internal and external criticism should be considered simultaneously.
B. External criticism should be considered before internal criticism.

Case studies may involve an in-depth examination of
A. individuals
B. groups of people
C.institutions
D. all of the above
D. all of the above

Consider the title “The Lived Experiences of Surviving the Earthquake.” This title would indicate which of the following types of qualitative research?
A. ethnographic
B. phenomenological
C. historical
D. grounded theory
B. phenomenological

The review of literature in qualitative research is
A. never conducted prior to the beginning of the study
B. sometime conducted prior to the beginning of the study
B. sometime conducted prior to the beginning of the study

Teresa Christy, a nurse, was involved in what type of qualitative research?
A. action
B. ethnographic
C. historical
D. phenomenological
C. historical