Chapter 27 WHAP

question

What did self-ringing bells symbolize in Asia?
answer

the increasing engagement between Asian and European peoples
question

When did Europeans begin to interrupt with Asian society affairs?
answer

the nineteenth century. Previous to this, Europeans had control of their coastlines but did not have control of any internal affairs
question

What happened during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries in China?
answer

they experienced political turmoil during the Yuan dynasty of nomadic invaders
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When the Yuan dynasty came to an end, which dynasty came to place and what did they try to do?
answer

Ming and Qing, they tried to erase all signs of Mongol influence from the previous dynasty
question

Who was the emperor of Ming Dynasty and what kind of govn’t was established?
answer

Hongwu was the founder. He drove the Mongols out of China and built a tightly centralized state
question

What were some of Ming Dynasty’s greatest accomplishments?
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-launched series of naval expedition that sailed throughout the Indian Ocean basin and showed Chinese colors -began building the great wall of china for fortification -restored civil service examinations tat Mongol rulers had neglected
question

How did Ming eventually Decline and when?
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declined in mid-sixteenth century. -Ming navy and coastal defenses were useless against pirates -corruption of emperor (especially emperor Wanli)
question

How did Ming Dynasty collapse?
answer

A famine struck and empire was too weak to recover. Rebels took over the capital but Ming dynasty and Manchu forces worked together to displace these rebels. Manchu forces did not help Ming Dynasty recover. They eventually just started their own capital in Bei Jing and started the Qing Dynasty
question

Who ruled the Qing Dynasty and who were they?
answer

Manchus, they were pastoral nomads
question

how did manchus manage to overthrow the Ming?
answer

Qing dynasty was weak in the first place, but many Chinese were against its corruption and eunuchs. They helped the Manchus take control
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what was the relationship between the Chinese subjects and Manchu rulers in the beginning of the Manchu rule?
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strong imperial leadership muted tensions between Manchu rulers and Chinese subjects
question

Who was Kangxi and what were his accomplishments?
answer

emperor of china during the Qing dynasty. He was a scholar. -organized flood-control and irrigation projects -patronized Confucian schools and academics -conquered island of taiwan, Mongolia, central asia
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Who was Qian long and his relationship with Kangxi’s accomplishments?
answer

Qian Long was the grandson of Kangxi. He conquered even more areas and expanded his grandfather’s vast empire -his reign marked the height of the Qing Dynasty
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What title was given to emperors of china?
answer

Son of Heaven
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What does the Son of Heaven signify?
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human being designated by heavenly powers to maintain order on the earth
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What privileges did the Son of Heaven have compared to the normal mortals?
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hundreds of concubines reside on his harem -hundreds of eunuchs looked after his desires -wear stuff that noone else can wear or they will be killed
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What was the kowtow ?
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-three kneeling s and nine head knocking, performed when subjects see the emperor
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What did the scholar-bureaucrats take care of ?
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day to day governance of the empire
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How did scholar-bureaucrats earn this high position in court?
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they had to earn academic degrees by passing rigorous civil service exams
question

How were preparations like for civil service exams?
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preparations started at early stages of life – only open to males -by the time students were twelve years old, they ad memorized several thousand characters of Confucian work -studied calligraphy, poetry and essay writing
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How did the actual Civil service exam consist of ?
answer

battery of tests administered at the district, provincial, and metro politan levels -write eight legged essays of questions posed by the examiners
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What was generally the result of passing the Examination? How about those who are not as successful?
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prospects for rich social and financial rewards -those who did not pass will probably work as teachers or serve as family tutors
question

Describe the concept of Filial piety?
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implied that not only duties of children toward their fathers but also loyalty of subjects toward emperor
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What was gender relationship like in China?
answer

Confucian principles subjected women to the authority of men -even honored those who suicide when husband dies to accompany them to grave
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What was footbinding and what made it popular?
answer

-foot binding is a custom that originated in the Song Dynasty. girl’s feet were constrained and deformed by strips of linen to ensure that they won’t grow properly. -these small feet aroused men
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Which crops increased productivity of agriculture and who introduced them?
answer

-maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts introduced by spanish merchants coming by way of the Philippines
question

What items did china bring to the global trade market? what item was most desired by other nations
answer

-china produced porcelain, lacquer ware and tea for consumers in the Indian ocean basin, central asia and Europe -Silk was most desired and the silk industry was very organized in china
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What was government regulation like during this trade economic prosperity during the Qing Dynasty
answer

very strict government regulations. they permitted portuguese merchants to operate only at the port of Macau and British only in Guang zhou
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What was to blame for the slow and little innovation of agricultural and industrial technologies during the Qing and Ming
answer

Instead of encouraging technological innovation as a foundation of military and economic strength( like the Tang and Song) the Ming and Qing’s regime favored political and social stability
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Who were the privileged classes in china? what were some common characteristics
answer

scholar-bureaucrats and gentry -wore distinctive clothing -favorable legal treatment -owned land
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Who were the working class ?
answer

peasants, artisans and merchants
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why were merchants ranked among the lowest in the Confucian social hierarchy?
answer

moralist look upon them as unscrupulous social parasites (they lie to get money)
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Which people belonged in the lower class?
answer

aka mean people, or members of military forces , slaves , indentured servants, entertainers, prostitutes, etc
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How did the Ming and Qing support Confucian education?
answer

funded the Hanlin Academy, maintained provincial schools throughout china where promising students could study for the service examinations, and provided funding for other programs emphasizing chinese cultural traditions
question

What did popular novels do for the general public?
answer

provided entertainment and often offered thoughtful reflection on the world and human affairs
question

Who were the most prominent of the missionaries of Christianity in China?
answer

the Jesuits, who worked to strengthen Roman catholic Christianity in Europe and abroad. -Matteo ricci was the founder of the missions in China
question

How did Christianity gain curiosity of chinese people?
answer

Ricci’s mastery of the Chinese language and literature made people curious. Then they showed off European technology to make them more interested. Then there was European education and principles that really made them hooked. Mechanical devices piqued their curiosity the most!
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Was the missionaries successful and why?
answer

no not really, because many chinese could not accept the fact that christianity said it was only true religion.
question

Who was Tokugawa Ieyasu and what amazing thing did he accomplish?
answer

-ruler of the Tokugawa dynasty established a military governmental and he ruled the bakufu as shogun from 1600 until the end of the Tokugawa dynasty in 167
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How did the Tokugawa shogun try to control the Daimyos (territorial lords of Japan)?
answer

instituted policy of “alternate attendance”, which required daimyo to maintain their families at Edo and spend every other year at the Tokugawa Court in order to enable shoguns to keep an eyye on the daimyos -shoguns also subjected marriage alliances between daimyo families to make them stop fighting each other
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How did Shoguns control foreign relations?
answer

-issued series of edicts sharply restricting Japanese relations with other lands -later, this policy weakened and japan began to trade again
question

How did population growth eventually happen in Japan?
answer

agricultural productions doubled of course
question

what were some social changes during the Tokugawa rule?
answer

-shoguns pushed daimyo and samurai to become bureaucrats to limit fighting – daimyo and samurai became poor because their only source of income came in the form of rice collected by peasants
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What did Shoguns see in the Neo-confucianism belief?
answer

-they liked the emphasis on filial piety and loyalty to superiors, so they made it the official ideology
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What were the thoughts of scholars were appreciated native learning?
answer

scorned neo-Confucianism and even Buddhism as alien cultural imports and emphasized the importance of folk traditions and the indigenous shinto religion for Japanese Identity
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what was the ukiyo or floating world?
answer

centers of Tokugawa urban culture, included entertainment and pleasure quarters where teahouses, theaters, brothels and public baths offered escape from social responsibilities
question

Which Jesuit tried to influence christianity in Japan and was he successful?
answer

-Jesuit Francis Xavier, and extremely successful early on
question

Did christianity remain influential in Japan?
answer

No, shoguns got worried that this influence might ruin japanese traditions and therefore restricted European access to japan
question

How did shoguns enforce anti-christian campaigns
answer

between 1587 and 1639, shoguns promulgated several decrees ordering a halt to christian missions. They tortured and executed european missionaries who refused to leave the islands
question

Who later became Japan’s principal source of information about Europe and the world beyond Easy Asia?
answer

the dutch
question

Essay Question : Discuss the significance of the civil service examination system. How were the “eight legged essays” representative of Chines political and educational traditions? What might have been the limitations of this system?
answer

They had to be written to pass Imperial Examinations which was extremely formulaic, and was one of the reasons for China’s cultural stagnation. (see page 731 for complete answer)
question

Examine the role of women during the Ming and Qing dynasties. How was footbinding representative of the changing social and gender worlds of China?
answer

Foot-binding was first used as a status symbol for high class, then spread throughout the culture to all ranks. see 732 for complete answer
question

Examine the rise of the “floating world” in Japan. What factors ed to this phenomenon? What can it say about the changing intelectual and social landscape of Japan?
answer

More formal education, literature, and philosophy led to the floating worlds so people could have a place of entertainment and pleasure. (see 745 for complete answer)

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