Chapter 23 – An Era of Social Change

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Cesar Chavez
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A Mexican-American farm worker and organizer for the Mexican-American labor movement
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Barrios
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Segregated, Spanish-speaking neighborhoods in cities where most Latino immigrants settled; Higher rates of unemployment and poverty
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Dolores Huerta
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Latina labor organizer who formed the National Farm Workers Association along with Chavez in 1962
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United Farm Workers Organizing Committee
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A large group of Latino and Filipino agricultural laborers who worked to improve wages and conditions for agricultural workers
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\”brown power\”
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The increasing idea of pride in Latino heritage
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Bilingual Education Act (1968)
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Provided funds for schools to develop bilingual and cultural heritage programs for non-English speaking children
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Chicanos/Chicanas
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Shortened form of Mexicanos that young Mexican Americans began using to express pride in cultural heritage
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La Raza Unida
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A Latino political organization established to increase Latino voice in government
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What things to Native Americans experience at higher rates than the rest of the population?
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Unemployment, tuberculosis, alcoholism, infant mortality, shorter life expectancy
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Declaration of Indian Purpose
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Drafted as a response to failed termination policy calling for reform that would create new economic opportunities for Native Americans on their reservations
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American Indian Movement (AIM)
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An often militant Native American rights organization that began largely as a self-defense group against police brutality that branched out to protect rights of Native Americans
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Trail of Broken Treaties
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A march on Washington organized to protest the US government’s treaty violations throughout history
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Indian Education Act adn Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act
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Laws that gave tribes greater control over their own affairs and their children’s education
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Reynolds v. Sims (1964)
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Court case that applied the principle of \”one person, one vote\” to state legislatures to ensure that people within states had equal voice in state government
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Betty Friedan
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Writer of the Feminine Mystique that addressed \”the problem that has no name\”–the fact that women were simply leading unfulfilled lives
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Feminism
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The belief that women should have economic, political, and social equality with men
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Presidential Comission on the Status of Women
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Appointed by JFK to study women in the workplace; found that women were paid far less than men, even when doing the same jobs. Also found women were seldom promoted to management positions, regardless of qualifications.
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Women in Civil Rights and antiwar movmetns
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Often resented being assigned second-class roles within the organizations
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National Organization for Women (NOW)
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Created by 28 women including Betty Freidan to pursue women’s goals in light of the Equal Employment Opportunity Comission not sufficiently handling women’s grievances; Pushed for the creation of child-care facilities that would enable mothers to work and more EEOC enforcement in gender discrimination in hiring.
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New York Radical Women
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More militant feminist organization that famously burned things they viewed as symbols of men’s oppression like bras, girdles, and wigs
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Gloria Steinem
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A female journalist and political activist who was a major leader in the feminist movment
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Title IX of the Higher Education Act
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Banned gender discrimination in any education program receiving federal funding; resulted in several all-male colleges opening their doors to women
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Roe v. Wade
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A controversial Supreme Court decision of 1973 that determined that women have the right to choose an abortion during the first trimester of pregnancy
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Equal Rights Amendment
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A proposed, but never ratified, amendment to the consitution that would guarantee both men and women would have equal rights and protections under the law
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Phyllis Schlafly
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A conservative anti-feminist leader who strongly opposed the ERA
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The New Right
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Emerged as a reaction to the New Left and feminism; conservatives who called themselves \”pro-family\” and focused on social, cultural, and moral problems
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Glass Ceiling
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An invisible barrier many women still experience that keeps them from reaching top positions in their profession
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Counterculture
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A movement made up of mostly white, middle-class college youths who had grown disillusioned with the war and injustices in America and resisted tradition and conformity
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Hippies
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The name for members of the counterculture movement
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Hippie culture
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Rock ‘n’ roll music, outrageous and colorful clothing, sexual experimentation and license, illegal drug use (particularly marijuana and a new hallucinogenic drug called LSD), Eastern religions like Zen Buddhism, tie-dye, long hair, communes
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Communes
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Where many hippies lived as they rejected traditional family structures; no private property, everything shared
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Haight-Ashbury
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Neighborhood of San Francisco (named for the intersection of two streets) known as the hippie capital largely because hallucinogenic drugs were legal in California until 1966
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Decline of counterculture movment
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Didn’t last long: Communes declined and became seedy, \”do your own thing\” didn’t pay the bills, drug use led to addiction and breakdowns
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Pop Art
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Created by people like Andy Warhol and characterized by simple, commercial-looking images such as his famous soup can
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The Beatles
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Most famous rock band of the 1960s
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Woodstock
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Famous 1969 music and art fair held in upstate New York that was truly representative of 1960s culture
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The Sexual Revolution
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The change in American attitudes toward sexual behavior as they became more causal and permissive

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